Next Article in Journal
An Efficient and Economical Protocol for Isolating, Purifying and PEG-Mediated Transient Gene Expression of Chinese Kale Hypocotyl Protoplasts
Next Article in Special Issue
Global Actions for Managing Cactus Invasions
Previous Article in Journal
Is the Responsiveness to Light Related to the Differences in Stem Straightness among Populations of Pinus pinaster?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Decrease in Bat Diversity Points towards a Potential Threshold Density for Black Cherry Management: A Case Study from Germany
Open AccessArticle

Japanese and Bohemian Knotweeds as Sustainable Sources of Carotenoids

1
Department of Food Chemistry, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 113, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100384
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 28 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica Houtt.) and Bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica) are invasive alien plant species, causing great global ecological and economic damage. Mechanical excavation of plant material represents an effective containment method, but it is not economically and environmentally sustainable as it produces an excessive amount of waste. Thus, practical uses of these plants are actively being sought. In this study, we explored the carotenoid profiles and carotenoid content of mature (green) and senescing leaves of both knotweeds. Both plants showed similar pigment profiles. By means of high performance thin-layer chromatography with densitometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometric detector, 11 carotenoids (and their derivatives) and 4 chlorophylls were identified in green leaves, whereas 16 distinct carotenoids (free carotenoids and xanthophyll esters) were found in senescing leaves. Total carotenoid content in green leaves of Japanese knotweed and Bohemian knotweed (378 and 260 mg of lutein equivalent (LE)/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively) was comparable to that of spinach (384 mg LE/100 g DW), a well-known rich source of carotenoids. A much lower total carotenoid content was found for senescing leaves of Japanese and Bohemian knotweed (67 and 70 mg LE/100 g DW, respectively). Thus, green leaves of both studied knotweeds represent a rich and sustainable natural source of bioactive carotenoids. Exploitation of these invaders for the production of high value-added products should consequently promote their mechanical control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fallopia japonica Houtt; Fallopia x bohemica; mechanical control; renewable carotenoid source; carotenoid determination; chromatography; mass spectrometry; qualitative; quantitative analysis Fallopia japonica Houtt; Fallopia x bohemica; mechanical control; renewable carotenoid source; carotenoid determination; chromatography; mass spectrometry; qualitative; quantitative analysis
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Metličar, V.; Vovk, I.; Albreht, A. Japanese and Bohemian Knotweeds as Sustainable Sources of Carotenoids. Plants 2019, 8, 384.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop