Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2023) | Viewed by 32085

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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: acclimatization to drought; signaling under stress; the physiological and biochemical response of the plant to stress
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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to pathogens and pests especially reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants; sugars as signaling molecules; regulation of proteolysis and nitrogen metabolism; additional research topics concern the plant abiotic stress especially metallic trace elements and mechanisms of combined stresses
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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: plant cysteine proteinases activity regulation; phytocystatins; plant respons to biotic stress
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: crops; abiotic stresses; proteome; plant signaling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: plant molecular biology and biochemistry; phytohormones; abscisic acid metabolism and signaling; molecular regulation of seed development and germination
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Plant responses to environmental factors are extraordinarily complex. They can be observed at various levels of plant organization, ranging from changes in the intensity of basic biochemical processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, and transpiration to morphological and anatomical changes in organs. However, these aforementioned biochemical changes are preceded by the activation of an efficient signaling system which endures environmental fluctuations.

This Special Issue accepts publications concerning hormonal signaling, interactions between ROS, NO, and H2S, cascade of kinases, triggering transcription factors, changes in gene expression in response to water deficit, cold, heat, flooding, salinity, nutrient deficiency, and heavy metals stress. Moreover, the SI also accepts works on the plant's response to stress, i.e., activation of the antioxidant system (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) and the repair system.

Original and review papers on all of the above aspects of signaling under stress (also operating simultaneously or sequentially) are welcomed contributions for this Special Issue of Plants.

Dr. Małgorzata Nykiel
Dr. Mateusz Labudda
Dr. Beata Prabucka
Dr. Marta Gietler
Dr. Justyna Fidler
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Domesticated plants
  • Abiotic and biotic stress
  • Signaling
  • Adaptation and acclimatization to stress

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants
by Małgorzata Nykiel, Marta Gietler, Justyna Fidler, Beata Prabucka and Mateusz Labudda
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3405; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193405 - 27 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The responses of plants to stress factors are extremely elaborate [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

14 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
During Water Stress, Fertility Modulated by ROS Scavengers Abundant in Arabidopsis Pistils
by Ya-Ying Wang, Donald J. Head and Bernard A. Hauser
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112182 - 31 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Hours after watering plants with 75 mM NaCl, the water potential of reproductive structures precipitously decreases. In flowers with mature gametes, this change in water potential did not alter the rate of fertilization but caused 37% of the fertilized ovules to abort. We [...] Read more.
Hours after watering plants with 75 mM NaCl, the water potential of reproductive structures precipitously decreases. In flowers with mature gametes, this change in water potential did not alter the rate of fertilization but caused 37% of the fertilized ovules to abort. We hypothesize that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovules is an early physiological manifestation associated with seed failure. In this study, we characterize ROS scavengers that were differentially expressed in stressed ovules to determine whether any of these genes regulate ROS accumulation and/or associate with seed failure. Mutants in an iron-dependent superoxide dismutase (FSD2), ascorbate peroxidase (APX4), and three peroxidases (PER17, PER28, and PER29) were evaluated for changes in fertility. Fertility was unchanged in apx4 mutants, but the other mutants grown under normal conditions averaged a 140% increase in seed failure. In pistils, PER17 expression increases three-fold after stress, while the other genes decreased two-fold or more following stress; this change in expression accounts for differences in fertility between healthy and stressed conditions for different genotypes. In pistils, H2O2 levels rose in per mutants, but only in the triple mutant was there a significant increase, indicating that other ROS or their scavengers be involved in seed failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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17 pages, 4722 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Transcriptome Analyses of Photosynthesis in Three Mulberry Cultivars within Two Propagation Methods (Cutting and Grafting) under Waterlogging Stress
by Yong Li, Jin Huang, Cui Yu, Rongli Mo, Zhixian Zhu, Zhaoxia Dong, Xingming Hu, Chuxiong Zhuang and Wen Deng
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112066 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
Mulberry is a valuable woody plant with significant economic importance. It can be propagated through two main methods: cutting and grafting. Waterlogging can have a major impact on mulberry growth and can significantly reduce production. In this study, we examined gene expression patterns [...] Read more.
Mulberry is a valuable woody plant with significant economic importance. It can be propagated through two main methods: cutting and grafting. Waterlogging can have a major impact on mulberry growth and can significantly reduce production. In this study, we examined gene expression patterns and photosynthetic responses in three waterlogged mulberry cultivars propagated through cutting and grafting. Compared to the control group, waterlogging treatments reduced levels of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugars, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Additionally, the treatments significantly decreased the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) in all three cultivars, except for superoxide dismutase (SOD). Waterlogging treatments also affected the rate of photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) in all three cultivars. However, no significant difference in physiological response was observed between the cutting and grafting groups. Gene expression patterns in the mulberry changed dramatically after waterlogging stress and varied between the two propagation methods. A total of 10,394 genes showed significant changes in expression levels, with the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) varying between comparison groups. GO and KEGG analysis revealed important DEGs, including photosynthesis-related genes that were significantly downregulated after waterlogging treatment. Notably, these genes were upregulated at day 10 in the cutting group compared to the grafting group. In particular, genes involved in carbon fixation were significantly upregulated in the cutting group. Finally, cutting propagation methods displayed better recovery capacity from waterlogging stress than grafting. This study provides valuable information for improving mulberry genetics in breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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13 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Expression of Nitrogen Metabolism Genes and Primary Metabolic Variations in Rice Affected by Different Water Status
by Gahyun Kim and Jwakyung Sung
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081649 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The era of climate change strongly requires higher efficiency of energies, such as light, water, nutrients, etc., during crop production. Rice is the world’s greatest water-consuming plant, and, thus, water-saving practices such as alternative wetting and drying (AWD) are widely recommended worldwide. However [...] Read more.
The era of climate change strongly requires higher efficiency of energies, such as light, water, nutrients, etc., during crop production. Rice is the world’s greatest water-consuming plant, and, thus, water-saving practices such as alternative wetting and drying (AWD) are widely recommended worldwide. However the AWD still has concerns such as lower tillering, shallow rooting, and an unexpected water deficit. The AWD is a possibility to not only save water consumption but also utilize various nitrogen forms from the soil. The current study tried to investigate the transcriptional expression of genes in relation to the acquisition-transportation-assimilation process of nitrogen using qRT-PCR at the tillering and heading stages and to profile tissue-specific primary metabolites. We employed two water supply systems, continuous flooding (CF) and alternative wetting and drying (AWD), during rice growth (seeding to heading). The AWD system is effective at acquiring soil nitrate; however, nitrogen assimilation was predominant in the root during the shift from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In addition, as a result of the greater amino acids in the shoot, the AWD was likely to rearrange amino acid pools to produce proteins in accordance with phase transition. Accordingly, it is suggested that the AWD 1) actively acquired nitrate from soil and 2) resulted in an abundance of amino acid pools, which are considered a rearrangement under limited N availability. Based on the current study, further steps are necessary to evaluate form-dependent N metabolism and root development under the AWD condition and a possible practice in the rice production system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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24 pages, 16411 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Effects of Exogenous Lauric Acid on Drought Resistance in Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch)
by Binbin Zhang, Hao Du, Sankui Yang, Xuelian Wu, Wenxin Liu, Jian Guo, Yuansong Xiao and Futian Peng
Plants 2023, 12(7), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12071492 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is a fruit tree of economic and nutritional importance, but it is very sensitive to drought stress, which affects its growth to a great extent. Lauric acid (LA) is a fatty acid produced in plants and associated [...] Read more.
Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is a fruit tree of economic and nutritional importance, but it is very sensitive to drought stress, which affects its growth to a great extent. Lauric acid (LA) is a fatty acid produced in plants and associated with the response to abiotic stress, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, physiological analysis showed that 50 ppm LA pretreatment under drought stress could alleviate the growth of peach seedlings. LA inhibits the degradation of photosynthetic pigments and the closing of pores under drought stress, increasing the photosynthetic rate. LA also reduces the content of O2, H2O2, and MDA under drought stress; our results were confirmed by Evans Blue, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), and DAB(3,3-diaminobenzidine) staining experiments. It may be that, by directly removing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improving enzyme activity, i.e., catalase (CAT) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, the damage caused by reactive oxygen species to peach seedlings is reduced. Peach seedlings treated with LA showed a significant increase in osmoregulatory substances compared with those subjected to drought stress, thereby regulating osmoregulatory balance and reducing damage. RNA-Seq analysis identified 1876 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) in untreated and LA-pretreated plants under drought stress. In-depth analysis of these DEGs showed that, under drought stress, LA regulates the expression of genes related to plant–pathogen interaction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, the MAPK signaling pathway, cyanoamino acid metabolism, and sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis. In addition, LA may activate the Ca2+ signaling pathway by increasing the expressions of CNGC, CAM/CML, and CPDK family genes, thereby improving the drought resistance of peaches. In summary, via physiological and transcriptome analyses, the mechanism of action of LA in drought resistance has been revealed. Our research results provide new insights into the molecular regulatory mechanism of the LA-mediated drought resistance of peach trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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18 pages, 7465 KiB  
Article
Salt Stress Inhibits Photosynthesis and Destroys Chloroplast Structure by Downregulating Chloroplast Development–Related Genes in Robinia pseudoacacia Seedlings
by Chaoxia Lu, Lingyu Li, Xiuling Liu, Min Chen, Shubo Wan and Guowei Li
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061283 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
Soil salinization is an important factor limiting food security and ecological stability. As a commonly used greening tree species, Robinia pseudoacacia often suffers from salt stress that can manifest as leaf yellowing, decreased photosynthesis, disintegrated chloroplasts, growth stagnation, and even death. To elucidate [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is an important factor limiting food security and ecological stability. As a commonly used greening tree species, Robinia pseudoacacia often suffers from salt stress that can manifest as leaf yellowing, decreased photosynthesis, disintegrated chloroplasts, growth stagnation, and even death. To elucidate how salt stress decreases photosynthesis and damages photosynthetic structures, we treated R. pseudoacacia seedlings with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM) for 2 weeks and then measured their biomass, ion content, organic soluble substance content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant enzyme activity, photosynthetic parameters, chloroplast ultrastructure, and chloroplast development-related gene expression. NaCl treatment significantly decreased biomass and photosynthetic parameters, but increased ion content, organic soluble substances, and ROS content. High NaCl concentrations (100–200 mM) also led to distorted chloroplasts, scattered and deformed grana lamellae, disintegrated thylakoid structures, irregularly swollen starch granules, and larger, more numerous lipid spheres. Compared to control (0 mM NaCl), the 50 mM NaCl treatment significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activity while upregulating the expression of the ion transport-related genes Na+/H+ exchanger 1(NHX 1) and salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS 1) and the chloroplast development-related genes psaA, psbA, psaB, psbD, psaC, psbC, ndhH, ndhE, rps7, and ropA. Additionally, high concentrations of NaCl (100–200 mM) decreased antioxidant enzyme activity and downregulated the expression of ion transport- and chloroplast development-related genes. These results showed that although R. pseudoacacia can tolerate low concentrations of NaCl, high concentrations (100–200 mM) can damage chloroplast structure and disturb metabolic processes by downregulating gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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20 pages, 4164 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Memory in Taraxacum mongolicum in Response to Long-Term Different Grazing Intensities
by Yalin Wang, Wenyan Zhu, Fei Ren, Na Zhao, Shixiao Xu and Ping Sun
Plants 2022, 11(17), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11172251 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Grazing, as an important land use method in grassland, has a significant impact on the morphological and physiological traits of plants. However, little is known about how the molecular mechanism of plant responds to different grazing intensities. Here, we investigated the response of [...] Read more.
Grazing, as an important land use method in grassland, has a significant impact on the morphological and physiological traits of plants. However, little is known about how the molecular mechanism of plant responds to different grazing intensities. Here, we investigated the response of Taraxacum mongolicum to light grazing and heavy grazing intensities in comparison with a non-grazing control. Using de novo transcriptome assembly, T. mongolicum leaves were compared for the expression of the different genes under different grazing intensities in natural grassland. In total, 194,253 transcripts were de novo assembled and comprised in nine leaf tissues. Among them, 11,134 and 9058 genes were differentially expressed in light grazing and heavy grazing grassland separately, with 5867 genes that were identified as co-expression genes in two grazing treatments. The Nr, SwissProt, String, GO, KEGG, and COG analyses by BLASTx searches were performed to determine and further understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Analysis of the expression patterns of 10 DEGs by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed the accuracy of the RNA-Seq results. Based on a comparative transcriptome analysis, the most significant transcriptomic changes that were observed under grazing intensity were related to plant hormone and signal transduction pathways, carbohydrate and secondary metabolism, and photosynthesis. In addition, heavy grazing resulted in a stronger transcriptomic response compared with light grazing through increasing the of the secondary metabolism- and photosynthesis-related genes. These changes in key pathways and related genes suggest that they may synergistically respond to grazing to increase the resilience and stress tolerance of T. mongolicum. Our findings provide important clues for improving grassland use and protection and understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant response to grazing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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15 pages, 2958 KiB  
Article
The ABCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE (ABI) 4 Transcription Factor Is Stabilized by Stress, ABA and Phosphorylation
by Tzofia Maymon, Nadav Eisner and Dudy Bar-Zvi
Plants 2022, 11(16), 2179; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11162179 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) is a key player in the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and is involved in plant response to abiotic stress and development. Expression of the ABI4 gene is tightly regulated, with low [...] Read more.
The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) is a key player in the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and is involved in plant response to abiotic stress and development. Expression of the ABI4 gene is tightly regulated, with low basal expression. Maximal transcript levels occur during the seed maturation and early seed germination stages. Moreover, ABI4 is an unstable, lowly expressed protein. Here, we studied factors affecting the stability of the ABI4 protein using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing 35S::HA-FLAG-ABI4-eGFP. Despite the expression of eGFP-tagged ABI4 being driven by the highly active 35S CaMV promoter, low steady-state levels of ABI4 were detected in the roots of seedlings grown under optimal conditions. These levels were markedly enhanced upon exposure of the seedlings to abiotic stress and ABA. ABI4 is degraded rapidly by the 26S proteasome, and we report on the role of phosphorylation of ABI4-serine 114 in regulating ABI4 stability. Our results indicate that ABI4 is tightly regulated both post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Moreover, abiotic factors and plant hormones have similar effects on ABI4 transcripts and ABI4 protein levels. This double-check mechanism for controlling ABI4 reflects its central role in plant development and cellular metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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16 pages, 4419 KiB  
Article
ZmLBD5 Increases Drought Sensitivity by Suppressing ROS Accumulation in Arabidopsis
by Jing Xiong, Weixiao Zhang, Dan Zheng, Hao Xiong, Xuanjun Feng, Xuemei Zhang, Qingjun Wang, Fengkai Wu, Jie Xu and Yanli Lu
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101382 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
Drought stress is known to significantly limit crop growth and productivity. Lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) transcription factors—particularly class-I members—play essential roles in plant development and biotic stress. However, little information is available on class-II LBD genes related to abiotic stress in maize. [...] Read more.
Drought stress is known to significantly limit crop growth and productivity. Lateral organ boundary domain (LBD) transcription factors—particularly class-I members—play essential roles in plant development and biotic stress. However, little information is available on class-II LBD genes related to abiotic stress in maize. Here, we cloned a maize class-II LBD transcription factor, ZmLBD5, and identified its function in drought stress. Transient expression, transactivation, and dimerization assays demonstrated that ZmLBD5 was localized in the nucleus, without transactivation, and could form a homodimer or heterodimer. Promoter analysis demonstrated that multiple drought-stress-related and ABA response cis-acting elements are present in the promoter region of ZmLBD5. Overexpression of ZmLBD5 in Arabidopsis promotes plant growth under normal conditions, and suppresses drought tolerance under drought conditions. Furthermore, the overexpression of ZmLBD5 increased the water loss rate, stomatal number, and stomatal apertures. DAB and NBT staining demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) decreased in ZmLBD5-overexpressed Arabidopsis. A physiological index assay also revealed that SOD and POD activities in ZmLBD5-overexpressed Arabidopsis were higher than those in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results revealed the role of ZmLBD5 in drought stress by regulating ROS levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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13 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Changes in Seed Embryos of Hypoxia-Tolerant Rice and Hypoxia-Sensitive Barley at the Onset of Germination
by Jayamini Jayawardhane, M. K. Pabasari S. Wijesinghe, Natalia V. Bykova and Abir U. Igamberdiev
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112456 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are the cereal species differing in tolerance to oxygen deficiency. To understand metabolic differences determining the sensitivity to low oxygen, we germinated rice and barley seeds and studied changes in the levels [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are the cereal species differing in tolerance to oxygen deficiency. To understand metabolic differences determining the sensitivity to low oxygen, we germinated rice and barley seeds and studied changes in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), activities of the enzymes involved in their scavenging, and measured cell damage parameters. The results show that alcohol dehydrogenase activity was higher in rice than in barley embryos providing efficient anaerobic fermentation. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were also higher in rice embryos indicating higher NO turnover. Both fermentation and NO turnover can explain higher ATP/ADP ratio values in rice embryos as compared to barley. Rice embryos were characterized by higher activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase than in barley and a higher level of free thiols in proteins. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) in imbibed embryos were higher in rice than in barley, which corresponded to the reduced levels of ROS, malonic dialdehyde and electrolyte leakage. The observed differences in metabolic changes in embryos of the two cereal species differing in tolerance to hypoxia can partly explain the adaptation of rice to low oxygen environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

21 pages, 5691 KiB  
Review
Transcriptional and Post-Translational Regulation of Plant bHLH Transcription Factors during the Response to Environmental Stresses
by Yasmina Radani, Rongxue Li, Harriet Mateko Korboe, Hongyu Ma and Liming Yang
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2113; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112113 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Over the past decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify and characterize various plant transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses. Therefore, numerous efforts have been made to improve plant stress tolerance by engineering these transcription factor genes. The plant basic Helix–Loop–Helix [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify and characterize various plant transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses. Therefore, numerous efforts have been made to improve plant stress tolerance by engineering these transcription factor genes. The plant basic Helix–Loop–Helix (bHLH) transcription factor family represents one of the most prominent gene families and contains a bHLH motif that is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms. By binding to specific positions in promoters, they activate or repress the transcription of specific response genes and thus affect multiple variables in plant physiology such as the response to abiotic stresses, which include drought, climatic variations, mineral deficiencies, excessive salinity, and water stress. The regulation of bHLH transcription factors is crucial to better control their activity. On the one hand, they are regulated at the transcriptional level by other upstream components; on the other hand, they undergo various modifications such as ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and glycosylation at the post-translational level. Modified bHLH transcription factors can form a complex regulatory network to regulate the expression of stress response genes and thus determine the activation of physiological and metabolic reactions. This review article focuses on the structural characteristics, classification, function, and regulatory mechanism of bHLH transcription factor expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels during their responses to various abiotic stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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30 pages, 897 KiB  
Review
Signal Transduction in Cereal Plants Struggling with Environmental Stresses: From Perception to Response
by Małgorzata Nykiel, Marta Gietler, Justyna Fidler, Beata Prabucka, Anna Rybarczyk-Płońska, Jakub Graska, Dominika Boguszewska-Mańkowska, Ewa Muszyńska, Iwona Morkunas and Mateusz Labudda
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081009 - 7 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3464
Abstract
Cereal plants under abiotic or biotic stressors to survive unfavourable conditions and continue growth and development, rapidly and precisely identify external stimuli and activate complex molecular, biochemical, and physiological responses. To elicit a response to the stress factors, interactions between reactive oxygen and [...] Read more.
Cereal plants under abiotic or biotic stressors to survive unfavourable conditions and continue growth and development, rapidly and precisely identify external stimuli and activate complex molecular, biochemical, and physiological responses. To elicit a response to the stress factors, interactions between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, calcium ions, mitogen-activated protein kinases, calcium-dependent protein kinases, calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase, phytohormones and transcription factors occur. The integration of all these elements enables the change of gene expression, and the release of the antioxidant defence and protein repair systems. There are still numerous gaps in knowledge on these subjects in the literature caused by the multitude of signalling cascade components, simultaneous activation of multiple pathways and the intersection of their individual elements in response to both single and multiple stresses. Here, signal transduction pathways in cereal plants under drought, salinity, heavy metal stress, pathogen, and pest attack, as well as the crosstalk between the reactions during double stress responses are discussed. This article is a summary of the latest discoveries on signal transduction pathways and it integrates the available information to better outline the whole research problem for future research challenges as well as for the creative breeding of stress-tolerant cultivars of cereals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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19 pages, 380 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Abiotic Stress in Cereal Crops: Negative Impacts, Regulation, Biotechnology and Integrated Omics
by Rajendran Jeyasri, Pandiyan Muthuramalingam, Lakkakula Satish, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Jen-Tsung Chen, Sunny Ahmar, Xiukang Wang, Freddy Mora-Poblete and Manikandan Ramesh
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071472 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 5355
Abstract
Abiotic stresses (AbS), such as drought, salinity, and thermal stresses, could highly affect the growth and development of plants. For decades, researchers have attempted to unravel the mechanisms of AbS for enhancing the corresponding tolerance of plants, especially for crop production in agriculture. [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses (AbS), such as drought, salinity, and thermal stresses, could highly affect the growth and development of plants. For decades, researchers have attempted to unravel the mechanisms of AbS for enhancing the corresponding tolerance of plants, especially for crop production in agriculture. In the present communication, we summarized the significant factors (atmosphere, soil and water) of AbS, their regulations, and integrated omics in the most important cereal crops in the world, especially rice, wheat, sorghum, and maize. It has been suggested that using systems biology and advanced sequencing approaches in genomics could help solve the AbS response in cereals. An emphasis was given to holistic approaches such as, bioinformatics and functional omics, gene mining and agronomic traits, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and transcription factors (TFs) family with respect to AbS. In addition, the development of omics studies has improved to address the identification of AbS responsive genes and it enables the interaction between signaling pathways, molecular insights, novel traits and their significance in cereal crops. This review compares AbS mechanisms to omics and bioinformatics resources to provide a comprehensive view of the mechanisms. Moreover, further studies are needed to obtain the information from the integrated omics databases to understand the AbS mechanisms for the development of large spectrum AbS-tolerant crop production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants)
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