Plant-Based Bioactive Substances Identification, Extraction, and Application

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 5006

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV), Vicosa, Brazil
Interests: plant extracts; organic synthesis; NMR; spectroscopy; DFT calculations; structure elucidation; insecticide; herbicide

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510, Japan
Interests: plant extracts; new plant-derived compounds; new drug candidates

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products of vegetable origin, particularly secondary metabolites, are produced by plants to protect them from abiotic and biotic stresses. The structural variety of compounds is extraordinary and represents the richness of biological diversity in plant chemical ecology, in addition to plant–plant, plant–microorganism, and plant–animal interactions. Investigating this diversity of organic compounds is a source of inspiration for application in the food industry, medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, and agrochemistry. Obtaining bioactive compounds involves the extraction, isolation, structural elucidation, and evaluation of biological activity. The techniques commonly used in structural elucidation are nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy associated with DFT computational calculations, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. This Special Issue of Plants will highlight bioactive substances of plant origin, with a specific focus on extraction, identification, an evaluation of biological activity, and application.

Prof. Dr. Elson S. Alvarenga
Prof. Dr. Wei Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioassay
  • NMR
  • biological evaluation
  • theoretical calculation
  • DFT
  • natural products
  • mass spectrometry
  • infrared

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 5145 KiB  
Article
Resistance to Frankliniella occidentalis during Different Plant Life Stages and under Different Environmental Conditions in the Ornamental Gladiolus
by Dinar S. C. Wahyuni, Peter G. L. Klinkhamer, Young Hae Choi and Kirsten A. Leiss
Plants 2024, 13(5), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13050687 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The defense mechanisms of plants evolve as they develop. Previous research has identified chemical defenses against Western flower thrips (WFT) in Gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus L.). Consequently, our study aimed to explore the consistency of these defense variations against WFT across the various [...] Read more.
The defense mechanisms of plants evolve as they develop. Previous research has identified chemical defenses against Western flower thrips (WFT) in Gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus L.). Consequently, our study aimed to explore the consistency of these defense variations against WFT across the various developmental stages of Gladiolus grown under different conditions. Thrips bioassays were conducted on whole plants at three developmental stages, using the Charming Beauty and Robinetta varieties as examples of susceptible and resistant varieties, respectively. Metabolomic profiles of the leaves, buds and flowers before thrips infestation were analyzed. The thrips damage in Charming Beauty was more than 500-fold higher than the damage in Robinetta at all plant development stages. Relative concentrations of triterpenoid saponins and amino acids that were associated with resistance were higher in Robinetta at all plant stages. In Charming Beauty, the leaves exhibited greater damage compared to buds and flowers. The relative concentrations of alanine, valine and threonine were higher in buds and flowers than in leaves. The Metabolomic profiles of the leaves did not change significantly during plant development. In addition, we cultivated plants under different environmental conditions, ensuring consistency in the performance of the two varieties across different growing conditions. In conclusion, the chemical thrips resistance markers, based on the analysis of vegetative plants grown in climate rooms, were consistent over the plant’s lifetime and for plants grown under field conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Identification of Daphnane Diterpenoids from Wikstroemia indica Using Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Mi Zhang, Kouharu Otsuki, Reo Takahashi, Takashi Kikuchi, Di Zhou, Ning Li and Wei Li
Plants 2023, 12(20), 3620; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12203620 - 19 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for the rapid identification of compounds within natural resources. Daphnane diterpenoids, a class of natural compounds predominantly found in plants belonging to the Thymelaeaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, have attracted [...] Read more.
Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for the rapid identification of compounds within natural resources. Daphnane diterpenoids, a class of natural compounds predominantly found in plants belonging to the Thymelaeaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, have attracted much attention due to their remarkable anticancer and anti-HIV activities. In the present study, the presence of daphnane diterpenoids in Wikstroemia indica, a plant belonging to the Thymelaeaceae family, was investigated by LC-MS/MS analysis. As a result, 21 daphnane diterpenoids (121) in the stems of W. indica were detected. Among these, six major compounds (12, 15, 17, 18, 20, and 21) were isolated and their structures were unequivocally identified through a comprehensive analysis of the MS and NMR data. For the minor compounds (111, 13, 14, 16, and 19), their structures were elucidated by in-depth MS/MS fragmentation analysis. This study represents the first disclosure of structurally diverse daphnane diterpenoids in W. indica, significantly contributing to our understanding of bioactive diterpenoids in plants within the Thymelaeaceae family. Full article
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7 pages, 590 KiB  
Communication
Argentatin Content in Guayule Leaves (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray)
by María Mercedes García-Martínez, Beatriz Gallego, Guayente Latorre, María Engracia Carrión, Miguel Ángel De la Cruz-Morcillo, Amaya Zalacain and Manuel Carmona
Plants 2023, 12(10), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12102021 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Approximately one-third of the waste biomass from the cultivation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) for natural rubber production is leaf tissue; however, whether it can be valorized is not known. Guayulins and argentatins are potential high-value products that can be recovered [...] Read more.
Approximately one-third of the waste biomass from the cultivation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) for natural rubber production is leaf tissue; however, whether it can be valorized is not known. Guayulins and argentatins are potential high-value products that can be recovered from guayule resin during rubber/latex processing. Argentatins are highly abundant in guayule stem resin; however, unlike the guayulins, their occurrence in leaves has not been investigated. The present study determined the content of argentatins and isoargentatins A and B in the leaves of a pure guayule accession (R1040) and two hybrids (CAL-1 and AZ-2) under conditions of irrigation and non-irrigation. The resin content in leaves was ~10%, which provides a suitable starting point for economic exploitation. The highest production of argentatins occurred in plants under irrigation, with yields of 4.2 and 3.6 kg ha−1 for R1040 and AZ-2, respectively. The R1040 accession had the highest percentage of resin and the greatest total argentatin content (24.5 g kg−1 dried leaf), principally due to the abundance of argentatin A. Contrastingly, CAL-1 consistently showed the lowest argentatin content based on dried leaf weight and production (0.6 kg ha−1). The substantial abundance of argentatins in guayule leaves suggests the potential for future exploitation. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 1806 KiB  
Review
The Lack of Standardization and Pharmacological Effect Limits the Potential Clinical Usefulness of Phytosterols in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
by Mădălina-Georgiana Buț, George Jîtcă, Silvia Imre, Camil Eugen Vari, Bianca Eugenia Ősz, Carmen-Maria Jîtcă and Amelia Tero-Vescan
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1722; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081722 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
The prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) markedly increases with age. Phytotherapeutic approaches have been developed over time owing to the adverse side effects of conventional medications such as 5-reductase inhibitors and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists. Therefore, dietary supplements (DS) containing active compounds that [...] Read more.
The prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) markedly increases with age. Phytotherapeutic approaches have been developed over time owing to the adverse side effects of conventional medications such as 5-reductase inhibitors and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists. Therefore, dietary supplements (DS) containing active compounds that benefit BPH are widely available. Phytosterols (PSs) are well recognized for their role in maintaining blood cholesterol levels; however, their potential in BPH treatment remains unexplored. This review aims to provide a general overview of the available data regarding the clinical evidence and a good understanding of the detailed pharmacological roles of PSs-induced activities at a molecular level in BPH. Furthermore, we will explore the authenticity of PSs content in DS used by patients with BPH compared to the current legislation and appropriate analytical methods for tracking DS containing PSs. The results showed that PSs might be a useful pharmacological treatment option for men with mild to moderate BPH, but the lack of standardized extracts linked with the regulation of DS containing PSs and experimental evidence to elucidate the mechanisms of action limit the use of PSs in BPH. Moreover, the results suggest multiple research directions in this field. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: LC-MS Identification of Daphnane Diterpenoids from Wikstroemia indica
Authors: Prof. Dr. Wei Li
Affiliation: Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510, Japan
Abstract: Daphnane diterpenoids, known for their potential in anti-HIV and anticancer drug development, are characteristic metabolites found in plants of the Thymelaeaceae family. Wikstroemia indica (L.) C. A. Mey., a plant species distributed in southeastern China and traditionally used for treating bronchitis, hepatitis, and cancer, has attracted attention in our ongoing study focused on the discovery of bioactive daphnane diterpenoids from Thymelaeaceae plants. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) was employed to analyze the chemical constituents of W. indica. Through meticulous analysis of information, including molecular formula of precursor ion, retention time, along with the interpretation of characteristic MS/MS fragmentation patterns, and validation via isolation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses, 21 daphnane diterpenoids were successfully identified in W. indica. This study unveils the presence of daphnane diterpenoids in W. indica for the first time, offering valuable insights into their distribution among plants and potential applications in drug discovery.

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