Extraction, Characterization and Biological Activity of Natural Products

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2023) | Viewed by 23663

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Guest Editor
Fraculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Interests: bioactive molecules; extraction; subcritical water; supercritical carbon dioxide; natural deep eutectic solvents; green chemistry
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Guest Editor
Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, Nanjing 210042, China
Interests: bioactive molecules; extraction; antioxidant; subcritical water
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural products have been widely used in many branches of industry, especially in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Interest in natural biomolecules comes from cognition that they have fewer side effects than synthetic compounds, and that modern science is increasingly recognizing the importance of the synergistic effect of biomolecules within a natural mixture. The need for new products with increased functionality and improved characteristics that follow the increasingly demanding requirements of consumers has developed. This requires intensive research in the field of bioactive molecules, and thus, research regarding the isolation mechanisms has intensified. Thus, more and more research is being conducted with the aim to determine their bioactivity in vitro and in vivo, but also to elucidate their action mechanism. In addition, it is very important to determine the potential toxicity of natural bioactive compounds, as well as toxic doses, but also their metabolism in a living organism. In addition to biological characterization, their chemical characterization is undoubtedly of great importance, and research is intensifying in the field of development of analytical methods for their reliable detection, identification, and quantification. Due to the exceptional importance of natural bioactive compounds, there is a growing interest in finding alternative sources of potential biomolecules, so that waste from the agroforestry, agriculture, and food sectors is recognized as their potential source, positively related to ecology and environmental protection. Furthermore, new efficient and environment-friendly extraction solvents or technologies should be developed to meet the need for green chemistry and sustainable development.

Therefore, this Special Issue of Plants Journal is aimed at promoting the latest scientific advances in the field of extraction, isolation, and characterization of biologically active compounds of natural origin. Studies that focus on the development of modern extraction techniques, as well as new green solvents for their extraction, the valorization of biowaste, and the use of biowaste as an alternative source of bioactive compounds are welcome. Papers focused on chemical and biological (in vitro and in vivo) characterization are also the focus of this Special Edition. Authors are encouraged to submit original papers as well as review articles.

Dr. Aleksandra Cvetanović Kljakić
Dr. Linlin Yan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural bioactive compounds
  • bioactivities
  • green extraction technology
  • separation and purification
  • polyphenols
  • flavonoids

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 206 KiB  
Editorial
The Extraction, Characterization and Biological Activity of Natural Products
by Linlin Yan and Aleksandra Cvetanović Kljakić
Plants 2023, 12(19), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12193382 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
The aim of this Special Issue, entitled “The Extraction, Characterization and Biological Activity of Natural Products”, is to expand our knowledge and promote a better understanding of the latest scientific advances in the field of the extraction, isolation and characterization of biologically active [...] Read more.
The aim of this Special Issue, entitled “The Extraction, Characterization and Biological Activity of Natural Products”, is to expand our knowledge and promote a better understanding of the latest scientific advances in the field of the extraction, isolation and characterization of biologically active compounds of natural plants [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
Achyrocline satureioides Hydroalcoholic Extract as a Hypoallergenic Antimicrobial Substitute of Natural Origin for Commonly Used Preservatives in Cosmetic Emulsions
by Denisa Langová, Maria Angélica Mera Córdoba, Rodrigo Sorrechia, Julie Hoová, Zdeněk Svoboda, Renata Mikulíková, Marcos Antonio Correa, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues Pietro and Ivana Márová
Plants 2023, 12(10), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12102027 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. The healing and antimicrobial effects of this plant have already been covered by many studies, which have confirmed its beneficial effects on human health. In [...] Read more.
Achyrocline satureioides is a South American herb used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. The healing and antimicrobial effects of this plant have already been covered by many studies, which have confirmed its beneficial effects on human health. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of A. satureioides hydroalcoholic extract against Escherichia coli ATCC10536, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228 and Lactobacillus acidophilus INCQS00076 was determined. The cytotoxicity of the extract was tested on human HaCaT keratinocytes showing very favourable effects on the proliferation and renewal of keratinocytes. According to the results of the HPLC and GC-MS analyses, the lyophilized extract contained only a minimal amount of fragrance allergens. The extract was then used in two cosmetic formulations, and one of them showed a significant synergistic interaction with other cosmetic components. We suggest the use of A.satureioides hydroalcoholic extract as a suitable antimicrobial component of natural origin for cosmetic preparations as a substitute for commonly used preservatives that can cause skin irritation and as a material with its own biological activity. Full article
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16 pages, 2124 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Biopharmaceutical Evaluation of Capsules Containing Freeze-Dried Cranberry Fruit Powder
by Rima Šedbarė, Valdimaras Janulis and Kristina Ramanauskiene
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061397 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Cranberry fruits are an important source of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of excipients on the solubility of cranberry anthocyanins and their dissolution kinetics as well as on the disintegration time of the capsules. [...] Read more.
Cranberry fruits are an important source of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of excipients on the solubility of cranberry anthocyanins and their dissolution kinetics as well as on the disintegration time of the capsules. Selected excipients (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, beta-cyclodextrin and chitosan) were found to affect the solubility and release kinetics of anthocyanins in freeze-dried cranberry powder. Capsule formulations N1–N9 had a disintegration time of less than 10 min, and capsule formulation N10 containing 0.200 g of freeze-dried cranberry powder, 0.100 g of Prosolv (combination of microcrystalline cellulose and colloidal silicon dioxide), and 0.100 g of chitosan had a capsule disintegration time of over 30 min. The total amount of anthocyanins released into the acceptor medium ranged from 1.26 ± 0.06 mg to 1.56 ± 0.03 mg. Capsule dissolution test data showed that the time to release into the acceptor medium was statistically significantly longer for the chitosan-containing capsule formulations compared to the control capsules (p < 0.05). Freeze-dried cranberry fruit powder is a potential source of anthocyanin-rich dietary supplements, and the choice of excipient chitosan could be a suitable solution in capsule formulations providing greater anthocyanin stability and modified release in the gastrointestinal tract. Full article
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18 pages, 1152 KiB  
Article
New Biological and Chemical Insights into Optimization of Chamomile Extracts by Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model
by Aleksandra Cvetanović Kljakić, Miloš Radosavljević, Gokhan Zengin, Linlin Yan, Uroš Gašić, Predrag Kojić, Aleksandra Torbica, Miona Belović and Zoran Zeković
Plants 2023, 12(6), 1211; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12061211 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Chamomile is one of the most consumed medicinal plants worldwide. Various chamomile preparations are widely used in various branches of both traditional and modern pharmacy. However, in order to obtain an extract with a high content of the desired components, it is necessary [...] Read more.
Chamomile is one of the most consumed medicinal plants worldwide. Various chamomile preparations are widely used in various branches of both traditional and modern pharmacy. However, in order to obtain an extract with a high content of the desired components, it is necessary to optimize key extraction parameters. In the present study, optimization of process parameters was performed using the artificial neural networks (ANN) model using a solid-to-solvent ratio, microwave power and time as inputs, while the outputs were the yield of the total phenolic compounds (TPC). Optimized extraction conditions were as follows: a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:80, microwave power of 400 W, extraction time of 30 min. ANN predicted the content of the total phenolic compounds, which was later experimentally confirmed. The extract obtained under optimal conditions was characterized by rich composition and high biological activity. Additionally, chamomile extract showed promising properties as growth media for probiotics. The study could make a valuable scientific contribution to the application of modern statistical designs and modelling to improve extraction techniques. Full article
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26 pages, 7307 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial, Antioxidant Activities, GC-Mass Characterization, and Cyto/Genotoxicity Effect of Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Latex of Cynanchum acutum L
by Magda I. Soliman, Nada S. Mohammed, Ghada EL-Sherbeny, Fatmah Ahmed Safhi, Salha Mesfer ALshamrani, Amal A. Alyamani, Badr Alharthi, Safa H. Qahl, Najla Amin T. Al Kashgry, Sawsan Abd-Ellatif and Amira A. Ibrahim
Plants 2023, 12(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010172 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2883
Abstract
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is receiving more attention these days since it is simple to use and prepare, uses fewer harsh chemicals and chemical reactions, and is environmentally benign. A novel strategy aims to recycle poisonous plant chemicals and use them as natural [...] Read more.
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is receiving more attention these days since it is simple to use and prepare, uses fewer harsh chemicals and chemical reactions, and is environmentally benign. A novel strategy aims to recycle poisonous plant chemicals and use them as natural stabilizing capping agents for nanoparticles. In this investigation, silver nanoparticles loaded with latex from Cynanchum acutum L. (Cy-AgNPs) were examined using a transmission electron microscope, FT-IR spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Additionally, using Vicia faba as a model test plant, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects of crude latex and various concentrations of Cy-AgNPs were studied. The majority of the particles were spherical in shape. The highest antioxidant activity using DPPH was illustrated for CAgNPs (25 mg/L) (70.26 ± 1.32%) and decreased with increased concentrations of Cy-AGNPs. Antibacterial activity for all treatments was determined showing that the highest antibacterial activity was for Cy-AgNPs (50 mg/L) with inhibition zone 24 ± 0.014 mm against Bacillus subtilis, 19 ± 0.12 mm against Escherichia coli, and 23 ± 0.015 against Staphylococcus aureus. For phytochemical analysis, the highest levels of secondary metabolites from phenolic content, flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids, were found in Cy-AgNPs (25 mg/L). Vicia faba treated with Cy-AgNPs- (25 mg/L) displayed the highest mitotic index (MI%) value of 9.08% compared to other Cy-AgNP concentrations (50–100 mg/L) and C. acutum crude latex concentrations (3%). To detect cytotoxicity, a variety of chromosomal abnormalities were used, including micronuclei at interphase, disturbed at metaphase and anaphase, chromosomal stickiness, bridges, and laggards. The concentration of Cy-AgNPs (25 mg/L) had the lowest level of chromosomal aberrations, with a value of 23.41% versus 20.81% for the control. Proteins from seeds treated with V. faba produced sixteen bands on SDS-PAGE, comprising ten monomorphic bands and six polymorphic bands, for a total percentage of polymorphism of 37.5%. Eight ISSR primers were employed to generate a total of 79 bands, 56 of which were polymorphic and 23 of which were common. Primer ISSR 14 has the highest level of polymorphism (92.86%), according to the data. Using biochemical SDS-PAGE and ISSR molecular markers, Cy-AgNPs (25 mg/L) showed the highest percentage of genomic template stability (GTS%), with values of 80% and 51.28%, respectively. The findings of this work suggest employing CyAgNPs (25 mg/L) in pharmaceutical purposes due to its highest content of bioactive compounds and lowest concentration of chromosomal abnormalities. Full article
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11 pages, 1469 KiB  
Communication
Identification and Comparison of Bioactive Components of Two Dryopteris sp. Extract Using LC-QTOF-MS
by Yangseon Kim, Da Jung Lim, Jeong-Sup Song, Jung-Ae Kim, Byoung-Hee Lee and Youn Kyoung Son
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233233 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Dryopteris sp. is known for its various pharmacological effects and is used as a traditional medicine in Asia. The present study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Dryopteris sp. distributed in Korea. The chemical compounds in the ethanolic extracts of Dryopteris [...] Read more.
Dryopteris sp. is known for its various pharmacological effects and is used as a traditional medicine in Asia. The present study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Dryopteris sp. distributed in Korea. The chemical compounds in the ethanolic extracts of Dryopteris lacera and Dryopteris bissetiana were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight–mass spectrometry analysis and identified by exploring the UNIFI traditional medicine library. Flavonoids such as juglanin, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-laminaribioside, peltatoside, kaempferitrin, hyperoside, and astragalin were identified in both D. lacera and D. bissetiana. Neochlorogenic acid was identified as a caffeoylquinic acid in D. bissetiana. Both extracts of D. lacera and D. bissetiana exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of D. bissetiana against S. aureus was less than 625 ppm. The antibacterial activity was attributed to the identified phenolic compounds, juglanin, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-laminaribioside, kaempferitrin, astragalin, and neochlorogenic acid. Therefore, D. lacera and D. bissetiana can be used as Gram-positive selective antibiotics for further investigation. Full article
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16 pages, 3633 KiB  
Article
The LC-MS/MS Identification and Analgesic and Wound Healing Activities of Lavandula officinalis Chaix: In Vivo and In Silico Approaches
by Meryem Slighoua, Mohamed Chebaibi, Ismail Mahdi, Fatima Ez-zahra Amrati, Raffaele Conte, Mary Anne W. Cordero, Amal Alotaibi, Hamza Saghrouchni, Abdelkrim Agour, Touria Zair, Amina Bari and Dalila Bousta
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233222 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
We earlier emphasized in vivo the lavender plant’s (Lavandula officinalis Chaix.) anti-inflammatory and estrogenic activities and described the chemical compositions of its hydro-ethanolic (HE) extract. We used LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses to profile the phytochemical composition of the HE extract and to [...] Read more.
We earlier emphasized in vivo the lavender plant’s (Lavandula officinalis Chaix.) anti-inflammatory and estrogenic activities and described the chemical compositions of its hydro-ethanolic (HE) extract. We used LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses to profile the phytochemical composition of the HE extract and to assess the analgesic and wound-healing effects of both the hydro-ethanolic (HE) and polyphenolic (LOP) extracts in vivo and in silico. The analgesic activity was studied using two methods: acetic acid and formalin injections in mice. The wound-healing activity was carried out over 25 days using a burn model in rats. In the in silico study, the polyphenols identified in the plant were docked in the active sites of three enzymes: casein kinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. The LC-MS/MS identified some phenolic compounds, mainly apigenin, catechin, and myricetin, and the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 volatile compounds with triazole, D-glucose, hydroxyphenyl, and D-Ribofuranose as the major compounds. The HE and LOP extracts showed significant decreases in abdominal writhes, and the higher licking time of the paw (57.67%) was observed using the LOP extract at 200 mg/kg. Moreover, both extracts showed high healing percentages, i.e., 99.31 and 92.88%, compared to the control groups, respectively. The molecular docking showed that myricetin, amentoflavone, apigenin, and catechin are the most active molecules against the three enzyme receptors. This study sheds light on the potential of L. officinalis Chaix as a source of natural products for pharmaceutical applications for analgesic purposes as well as their utility in promoting burn-healing activity. Full article
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16 pages, 2369 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Effects of Some Methoxyflavones Extracted from Rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora Combined with Gentamicin against Carbapenem-Resistant Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii
by Siriwoot Sookkhee, Choompone Sakonwasun, Pitchaya Mungkornasawakul, Phadungkiat Khamnoi, Nitwara Wikan and Wutigri Nimlamool
Plants 2022, 11(22), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223128 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic Kaempferia parviflora extracts and the combined effects of the plant’s specific compounds with gentamicin against clinical strains of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimal inhibitory [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic Kaempferia parviflora extracts and the combined effects of the plant’s specific compounds with gentamicin against clinical strains of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of gentamicin and Kaempferia parviflora extracts against the tested bacterial strains were determined by using broth microdilution. The combined effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract and gentamicin were investigated by using a checkerboard assay and expressed as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). Crude ethanolic extract of Kaempferia parviflora showed the lowest median values of MIC towards the tested isolates (n = 10) of these tested bacteria at doses of 64 µg/mL, compared to those of other Kaempferia extracts. Among the isolated compounds, only three compounds, namely 3,5,7-trimethoxyflavone, 3,5,7,3′4′-pentamethoxyflavone, and 5,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone, were identified by NMR structural analysis. According to their FICIs, the synergistic effects of gentamicin combined with 3,5,7,3′4′-pentamethoxyflavone were approximately 90%, 90%, and 80% of tested carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), respectively. The present study concluded that 3,5,7,3′4′-pentamethoxyflavone extracted from Kaempferia parviflora potentiated the antibacterial action of gentamicin to combat bacterial resistance against the tested bacteria. Full article
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12 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Toxoplasmocidal and Cytotoxic Activities Guided Isolation and Characterization of an Undescribed Bioflavonoid-di-C-glucoside from Cycas rumphii Miq. Cultivated in Egypt
by Hosam M. El-Seadawy, Kamilia A. Abo El-Seoud, Mona El-Aasr, Haytham O. Tawfik and Amany E. Ragab
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212867 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Toxoplasmosis and cancer are serious worldwide diseases, and the available drugs cause serious side effects. Investigation for new alternative therapies from natural sources is now an increasing concern. Herein, we carried out, for the first time, an in vitro screening of Cycas rumphii [...] Read more.
Toxoplasmosis and cancer are serious worldwide diseases, and the available drugs cause serious side effects. Investigation for new alternative therapies from natural sources is now an increasing concern. Herein, we carried out, for the first time, an in vitro screening of Cycas rumphii Miq. leaves for toxoplasmocidal effect, using Viruluent RH Toxoplasma gondii, and cytotoxic activity against HEPG-2, HCT-116 and HELA cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective against T. gondii, with an EC50 of 3.51 ± 0.2 µg/mL compared to cotrimoxazole (4.18 ± 0.01 µg/mL) and was the most potent against the tested cell lines, especially HEPG-2, with an IC50 of 6.98 ± 0.5 µg/mL compared to doxorubicin (4.50 ± 0.2 µg/mL). Seven compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by extensive chromatographic techniques and fully elucidated using different spectroscopies. Compound (7) is an undescribed 4′, 4′′′ biapigenin di-C-glucoside, which showed a strong cytotoxic activity. Four known biflavonoids (1, 2, 4 and 5) in addition to a phenolic acid ester (3) and a flavonoid glycoside (6) were also isolated. Compounds (1, 3 and 6) were reported for the first time from C. rumphii. Full article
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17 pages, 2071 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition of Reichardia tingitana Methanolic Extract and Its Potential Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Larvicidal Activity
by Salama A. Salama, Zarraq E. Al-Faifi and Yasser A. El-Amier
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152028 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
The biggest challenges are locating effective, reasonably priced, and eco-friendly compounds to treat diseases caused by insects and microbes. The aim of this study was to employ GC-MS to assess the biological potency and chemical composition of the aerial parts of Reichardia tingitana [...] Read more.
The biggest challenges are locating effective, reasonably priced, and eco-friendly compounds to treat diseases caused by insects and microbes. The aim of this study was to employ GC-MS to assess the biological potency and chemical composition of the aerial parts of Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth. Using this technique, 17 components were interpreted from the extracted plant, accounting for around 100% of total volatile compounds. Commonly, 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (21.98%) and methyl oleate (27.26%) were positioned as the major components, which were ascertained after 19.25, and 23.34 min, respectively. The major components were classified as hydrocarbons (23.82%), fatty acids, esters of fatty acids (57.46%), steroids (17.26%), and terpenes (1.48%). The DPPH antioxidant activity of the R. tingitana extracted components revealed that the shoot extract is the most powerful, with an IC50 value of 30.77 mg L−1 and a radical scavenging activity percentage of 71.91%. According to the current result, methanolic extract of R. tingitana had the maximum zone of inhibition against Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus cereus (25.71 ± 1.63 and 24.42 ± 0.81 mm, respectively), while Clostridium tetani and Staphylococcus xylosus were the main resistant species. In addition, the 50% methanol crude shoot extract of R. tingitana showed greater potential anticancer activity with high cytotoxicity for two tumor cells HepG-2 and PC3 cells (IC50 = 29.977 and 40.479 µg mL−1, respectively) and noncytotoxic activity for WI-38 normal cells (IC50 = >100 µg mL−1). The MeOH extract of plant sample was more effective against Aedes aegypti larvae with LC50 of extract being 46.85, 35.75, and 29.38 mg L−1, whereas the LC90 is 82.66, 63.82, and 53.30 mg L−1 for the various time periods of 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. R. tingitana is a possible biologically active plant. Future study will include pure chemical isolation and individual component bioactivity evaluation. Full article
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Review

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35 pages, 2281 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review of Genus Viscum: Biological and Chemical Aspects of Alcoholic Extracts
by Michelle Nonato de Oliveira Melo, João Vitor da Costa Batista, Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza, Adriana Passos Oliveira, Rafael Garrett, Stephan Baumgartner and Carla Holandino
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091811 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
The genus Viscum comprises a large number of semi-parasitic shrubs popularly known as Mistletoe. The Viscum species grow in many countries of Europe, Africa and Asia with different popular uses in ornamentation, foods and medicine. Many studies about Viscum have been done over [...] Read more.
The genus Viscum comprises a large number of semi-parasitic shrubs popularly known as Mistletoe. The Viscum species grow in many countries of Europe, Africa and Asia with different popular uses in ornamentation, foods and medicine. Many studies about Viscum have been done over the last years focusing on biological activities and chemical composition of the aqueous extracts, mainly related to anthroposophical medicines. However, it is known that non-aqueous preparations, as alcoholic extracts, have demonstrated different biological activities that are species—and host tree—dependent. Considering the potential of these alcoholic extracts, a scoping review was conducted using data from three online databases: PubMed, Scopus and Embase. Inclusion criteria consisted of the in vitro, in vivo, ex vivo, clinical and chemical studies of alcoholic extracts from Viscum species. The present review summarized 124 original publications about fourteen Viscum species. Viscum album, Viscum articulatum and Viscum coloratum were the main studied species. Alcoholic extracts demonstrated hypotensive, anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory capabilities, among other biological activities. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids represented 48%, 24% and 11% of the total identified compounds, respectively. This review contributes to the knowledge of alcoholic preparations of the Viscum species and points out the lack of clinical studies concerning these different extracts. Full article
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28 pages, 2611 KiB  
Review
Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology in the Exploration of the Multi-Targeted Therapeutic Approach of Traditional Medicinal Plants
by Bharti Sharma and Dinesh Kumar Yadav
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3243; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233243 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3490
Abstract
Metabolomic is generally characterized as a comprehensive and the most copious analytical technique for the identification of targeted and untargeted metabolite diversity in a biological system. Recently, it has exponentially been used for phytochemical analysis and variability among plant metabolites, followed by chemometric [...] Read more.
Metabolomic is generally characterized as a comprehensive and the most copious analytical technique for the identification of targeted and untargeted metabolite diversity in a biological system. Recently, it has exponentially been used for phytochemical analysis and variability among plant metabolites, followed by chemometric analysis. Network pharmacology analysis is a computational technique used for the determination of multi-mechanistic and therapeutic evaluation of chemicals via interaction with the genomes involved in targeted or untargeted diseases. In considering the facts, the present review aims to explore the role of metabolomics and network pharmacology in the scientific validation of therapeutic claims as well as to evaluate the multi-targeted therapeutic approach of traditional Indian medicinal plants. The data was collected from different electronic scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Science Direct, ACS publication, PubMed, Springer, etc., using different keywords such as metabolomics, techniques used in metabolomics, chemometric analysis, a bioinformatic tool for drug discovery and development, network pharmacology, methodology and its role in biological evaluation of chemicals, etc. The screened articles were gathered and evaluated by different experts for their exclusion and inclusion in the final draft of the manuscript. The review findings suggest that metabolomics is one of the recent most precious and effective techniques for metabolite identification in the plant matrix. Various chemometric techniques are copiously used for metabolites discrimination analysis hence validating the unique characteristic of herbal medicines and their derived products concerning their authenticity. Network pharmacology remains the only option for the unique and effective analysis of hundreds of chemicals or metabolites via genomic interaction and thus validating the multi-mechanistic and therapeutic approach to explore the pharmacological aspects of herbal medicines for the management of the disease. Full article
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