Laser as a Detection: From Spectral Imaging to LiDAR for Remote Sensing Applications

A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732). This special issue belongs to the section "New Applications Enabled by Photonics Technologies and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 3887

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
Interests: lidar; laser; atmosphere detection; optical design
1. School of Electronic Engineering, Huainan Normal University, Huainan, China
2. Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China
Interests: remote sensing detection; lidar; laser spectroscopy; atmospheric environment
College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China
Interests: fiber-optic sensing; optical waveguide devices; optoelectronics spectral applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first ruby laser was introduced in 1960, laser detection technology with precision as the main goal was born. Laser detection was first used in the military, before playing a large role in many other fields, such as aerospace, construction mapping, wind power industry, intelligent transportation and industrial manufacturing, with its advantages of strong anti-interference ability and high accuracy.

With the rapid development of industrial automation and machine vision, laser detection has proved to be a very important means of non-contact detection in many applications such as inspection, measurement and control. As a prerequisite for high-end technologies, such as laser velocimetry, laser imaging and LiDAR, researchers are increasingly interested in this research.

Laser spectral imaging techniques (single-pixel imaging, hyperspectral, resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, etc.) are important tools for studying the interaction between light and matter. They add one-dimensional spectral information to the ordinary two-dimensional spatial imaging by using the absorption or radiation properties of substances in different electromagnetic spectra. Since the composition of substances varies, there are differences between their corresponding spectra (fingerprint effect), so that the spectra of terrestrial targets can be used for identification and classification. Laser spectral imaging can acquire many narrow and continuous images in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, providing a complete and continuous spectral profile for each image element.

LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a remote sensing technology that makes accurate measurements by emitting a laser that shines at an object and reflects or scatters it over a period of time. It operates in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum and is very similar in principle and construction to a laser rangefinder. Scientists refer to detection using laser pulses as pulsed LiDAR and detection using continuous-wave laser beams as continuous-wave LiDAR. The role of LiDAR is to detect, identify, distinguish and track targets by accurately measuring their position (distance and angle), state of motion (speed, vibration and attitude) and shape.

This Special Issue invites manuscripts that introduce the recent advances in “Laser as a detection: from spectral imaging to LiDAR for remote sensing applications”. All theoretical, numerical and experimental papers are accepted. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Laser detection technology;
  • LiDAR detection technology;
  • Laser Spectroscopy;
  • Atmospheric Detection and Remote Sensing;
  • Single-pixel imaging;
  • Hyperspectral technology;
  • Resonance fluorescence spectroscopy;
  • Fiber optic sensing technology;
  • Optical waveguide resonant cavity design;
  • Optical machine system design;
  • High average-power laser technology;
  • Progress in high-quality optics.
  • Image processing.

Dr. Jianfeng Chen
Dr. Ming Zhao
Prof. Dr. He Tian
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • laser detection
  • LiDAR
  • laser spectroscopy
  • remote sensing
  • optical design

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 9016 KiB  
Article
Research on the Correction Algorithm for Ozone Inversion in Differential Absorption Lidar
by Leyong Li, Chenbo Xie, Jie Ji and Kunming Xing
Photonics 2024, 11(6), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11060510 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Due to the complex and variable nature of the atmospheric conditions, traditional multi-wavelength differential absorption lidar (DIAL) methods often suffer from significant errors when inverting ozone concentrations. As the detection range increases, there is a higher demand for Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) [...] Read more.
Due to the complex and variable nature of the atmospheric conditions, traditional multi-wavelength differential absorption lidar (DIAL) methods often suffer from significant errors when inverting ozone concentrations. As the detection range increases, there is a higher demand for Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in lidar signals. Based on this, the paper discusses the impact of different atmospheric factors on the accuracy of ozone concentration inversion. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of the two-wavelength differential method and the three-wavelength dual-differential method under both noisy and noise-free conditions. Firstly, the errors caused by air molecular extinction, aerosol extinction, and backscatter terms in the inversion using the two-wavelength differential method were simulated. Secondly, the corrected inversion errors were obtained through direct correction and the introduction of a three-wavelength dual differential correction. Finally, addressing the issue of insufficient SNR in practical inversions, the inversion errors of the two correction methods were simulated by constructing lidar parameters and incorporating appropriate noise. The results indicate that the traditional two-wavelength differential algorithm is significantly affected by aerosols, making it more sensitive to aerosol concentration and structural changes. On the other hand, the three-wavelength dual differential algorithm requires a higher SNR in lidar signals. Therefore, we propose a novel strategy for inverting atmospheric ozone concentration, which prioritizes the use of the three-wavelength dual-differential method in regions with high SNR and high aerosol concentration. Conversely, the direct correction method utilizing the two-wavelength differential approach is used. This approach holds the potential for high-precision ozone concentration profile inversion under different atmospheric conditions. Full article
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19 pages, 5262 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation and Error Tracing of Rotary Rayleigh Doppler Wind LiDAR
by Jianfeng Chen, Chenbo Xie, Jie Ji, Leyong Li, Bangxin Wang, Kunming Xing and Ming Zhao
Photonics 2024, 11(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics11050398 - 25 Apr 2024
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Abstract
In the study of atmospheric wind fields from the upper troposphere to the stratosphere (10 km to 50 km), direct detection wind LiDAR is considered a promising method that offers high-precision atmospheric wind field data. In 2020, Xie et al. of the Anhui [...] Read more.
In the study of atmospheric wind fields from the upper troposphere to the stratosphere (10 km to 50 km), direct detection wind LiDAR is considered a promising method that offers high-precision atmospheric wind field data. In 2020, Xie et al. of the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed an innovative rotating Rayleigh Doppler wind LiDAR (RRDWL). The system aims to achieve single-LiDAR detection of atmospheric wind fields by rotating the entire device cabin. In 2022, the feasibility of the system was successfully validated in laboratory conditions, and field deployment was completed. Due to the structural differences between this system and traditional direct-detection wind LiDAR, performance tests were conducted to evaluate its continuous detection capability in outdoor environments. Subsequently, based on the test results and error analysis, further analysis was carried out to identify the main factors affecting the system’s detection performance. Finally, the error analysis and traceability of the detection results were conducted, and corresponding measures were discussed to provide a theoretical foundation for optimizing the performance of RRDWL. Full article
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12 pages, 7656 KiB  
Communication
Multiple Fano Resonances in a Metal–Insulator–Metal Waveguide for Nano-Sensing of Multiple Biological Parameters and Tunable Slow Light
by Ruiqi Zhang, He Tian, Yang Liu and Shihang Cui
Photonics 2023, 10(7), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10070703 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
A surface plasmonic waveguide made of metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capable of generating triple Fano resonances is proposed and numerically investigated for multi-biological parameter sensing as well as tunable slow light. The waveguide is made up of a bus waveguide with a silver baffle, a [...] Read more.
A surface plasmonic waveguide made of metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capable of generating triple Fano resonances is proposed and numerically investigated for multi-biological parameter sensing as well as tunable slow light. The waveguide is made up of a bus waveguide with a silver baffle, a square split-ring cavity with a square center (SSRCSC), and a circular ring cavity with a square center (CRCSC). Based on the triple Fano resonances, human blood temperature and plasma concentration are measured simultaneously at different locations in the waveguide, and the maximum sensitivities were 0.25 nm/°C and 0.2 nm·L/g, respectively. Furthermore, the two biological parameters can be used to achieve tunable slow light, and it was found that the group delay responses to human blood temperature and plasma concentration all conformed to cubic functions. The MIM waveguide may have great applications in future nano-sensing of multiple biological parameters and information processing of optical chips or bio-optical chips. Full article
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15 pages, 10612 KiB  
Article
Range-Gated LIDAR Utilizing a LiNbO3 (LN) Crystal as an Optical Switch
by Chenglong Luan, Yingchun Li, Huichao Guo and Houpeng Sun
Photonics 2023, 10(6), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics10060677 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1175
Abstract
In this paper, a range-gated LIDAR system utilizing an LN crystal as the electro-optical switch and a SCMOS (scientific complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imaging device is designed. To achieve range-gated operations, we utilize two polarizers and an LN (LiNbO3) crystal to form an [...] Read more.
In this paper, a range-gated LIDAR system utilizing an LN crystal as the electro-optical switch and a SCMOS (scientific complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imaging device is designed. To achieve range-gated operations, we utilize two polarizers and an LN (LiNbO3) crystal to form an electro-optical switch. The optical switch is realized by applying a pulse voltage at both ends of the crystal due to the crystal’s conoscopic interference effect and electro-optical effect. The advantage of this system is that low-bandwidth detectors, such as a CMOS and a CCD (charge-coupled device), can be used to replace conventional high-bandwidth detectors, such as an ICCD (intensified charge-coupled device), and it displays better imaging performance under specific conditions at the same time. However, after using an electro-optical crystal as an optical switch, a new inhomogeneity error will be introduced due to the conoscopic interference effect of the electro-optical crystal, resulting in a range error for the LIDAR system. To reduce the influence of inhomogeneity error on the system, this paper analyzes the sources of inhomogeneity error caused by the electro-optical crystal and calculates the crystal’s inhomogeneity mathematical expression. A compensation method is proposed based on the above inhomogeneity mathematical expression. An experimental LIDAR system is constructed in this paper to verify the validity of the compensation method. The experimental results of the range-gated LIDAR system show that in a specific field of view (2.6 mrad), the LIDAR system has good imaging performance; its ranging standard deviation is 3.86 cm and further decreases to 2.86 cm after compensation, which verifies the accuracy of the compensation method. Full article
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