Solidarity in Bioethics

A special issue of Philosophies (ISSN 2409-9287).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 15276

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Departament of Philosophy, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: bioethics; theories of justice; solidarity; ethics of artificial intelligence in health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solidarity is of growing importance in bioethics, as witnessed by the conference theme (Autonomy and Solidarity: Bridging the Tensions) of the last World Congress of Bioethics held in 2020 in Philadelphia, United States. It is not surprising because solidarity has opened many research fronts in current bioethical problems, especially in the justification of health policies such as vaccination, organ donation, social inequalities in health, universal access to limited health resources, the use of biobanks, medical research, democratic participation in decisions about population health, the implications of big data on health issues, the global health policies, policies related to the pandemic (lockdown, social distancing, distribution of vaccines, the use of masks in the context of COVID-19), etcetera. In these policies, as in many others, tensions appear between freedom, equality, and solidarity. The approach of solidarity is necessary because many bioethical issues, especially in the field of public health ethics, have broad social and political implications and allude to fundamental issues of common interest that cannot be tackled solely with traditional approaches to individual ethics and clinical ethics. The objective of this Special Issue is to show the advances in research on the concept of solidarity and its implications for current bioethics, including conflicts with autonomy and justice. More specifically, the aim of this Special Issue is a better understanding of the meanings and applications of solidarity in various public health policies, contributing to an adequate definition, elaborating, applying, and evaluating the health policies in which the idea of solidarity intervenes, and analyzing the role that solidarity can and should play in the context of global health attending to the various conflicts that it raises, such as the ethical demands of the special obligations towards family members, or the duties of justice beyond national states (the debate on global justice).

Prof. Angel Puyol
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • solidarity
  • bioethics
  • public health ethics
  • equity in health
  • egalitarianism
  • social justice

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Amplified Solidarity with Future Generations
by Irene Gómez-Franco
Philosophies 2024, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies9010017 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
A recent trend in bioethics has highlighted the decisive role that solidarity plays in global health. However, given the impact and extent of the effects of climate change, which reach beyond present generations, it is important to consider whether this concept can be [...] Read more.
A recent trend in bioethics has highlighted the decisive role that solidarity plays in global health. However, given the impact and extent of the effects of climate change, which reach beyond present generations, it is important to consider whether this concept can be applied intergenerationally. Does it make sense to talk about solidarity with future generations? The objective of this article is to explore ‘amplified solidarity’, a new concept of solidarity that explains our obligations towards the health and quality of life of future generations. The analysis of this concept is structured as follows: I first establish the moral relevance of future people and then investigate the traits of amplified solidarity, its challenges, and its relationship with other key principles. I propose that amplified solidarity needs both a critical imagination to be projected towards the future and an institutional framework to correct health injustices across an intergenerational timescale. Solidarity forms a potent triangular constellation with responsibility and justice to fight against global and intergenerational injustices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solidarity in Bioethics)
9 pages, 216 KiB  
Article
Solidarity, Care and Permanent Crisis
by Jordi Riba
Philosophies 2023, 8(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies8030048 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Solidarity is a contested concept whose definition needs to be clarified, especially in the context of the recent pandemic and in a world in permanent crisis. It is necessary to review certain stages of how solidarity develops and to relate the stages to [...] Read more.
Solidarity is a contested concept whose definition needs to be clarified, especially in the context of the recent pandemic and in a world in permanent crisis. It is necessary to review certain stages of how solidarity develops and to relate the stages to the current status of solidarity in this post-pandemic period, with the aim of establishing some lines of approach to proposals for viable bioethics in the context of a post-foundational philosophy as the present one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solidarity in Bioethics)
11 pages, 246 KiB  
Article
Global Inequality and the Fracture of (Proactive) Solidarity
by Maria Julia Bertomeu
Philosophies 2023, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies8020032 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
In this paper, I wish to examine what is meant by this new concept of “international solidarity”. The study will be presented in a number of sections, beginning with a general introduction that sets out the problem and emphasizes the importance of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, I wish to examine what is meant by this new concept of “international solidarity”. The study will be presented in a number of sections, beginning with a general introduction that sets out the problem and emphasizes the importance of the document produced by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. I will then detail certain general characteristics of the normative concept of solidarity and clarify a number of methodological assumptions and historical data. Thirdly, I will forward an in-depth discussion on the analysis of and debate around the concept of solidarity in its bioethical context, both prior to and during the pandemic. Finally, I will attempt to analyze what I call the ‘rhetoric of solidarity’, as set forth by international organizations and political leaders of the Global North during the pandemic, understanding it as aid in the face of the morally objectionable global inequality and injustice caused by a number of factors, the principal one being the current system of patents imposed by the WTO and the conversion of vaccines into commodities and even ‘positional goods’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solidarity in Bioethics)
16 pages, 1262 KiB  
Article
Civic Solidarity and Public Health Ethics
by Oriol Farrés Juste
Philosophies 2023, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies8010011 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2996
Abstract
Is solidarity in bioethics or public health ethics necessary? If so, why? Is there room for a principle of obligatory solidarity in bioethics or in public health ethics? In the first part of this paper, I assess the meaning of the value of [...] Read more.
Is solidarity in bioethics or public health ethics necessary? If so, why? Is there room for a principle of obligatory solidarity in bioethics or in public health ethics? In the first part of this paper, I assess the meaning of the value of solidarity in ethics. In the second part, I propose insights into the republican interpretation of solidarity, or, more correctly, “civic” solidarity. This is crucial to be able to distinguish between different sources of, and justifications for, solidarity, some legitimate and some not legitimate. In the third part of the paper, I apply the republican concept of civic solidarity to the field of bioethics and public health ethics. This is intended to show how civic republicanism can correct both liberal deficiencies and communitarian excesses in bioethics. Civic solidarity is essential to finding this middle way. It is a key concept, considering the challenges that we face as citizens, health professionals and patients. Finally, the paper concludes with a summary and a plan for further research in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solidarity in Bioethics)
13 pages, 2967 KiB  
Article
Beyond the Altruistic Donor: Embedding Solidarity in Organ Procurement Policies
by María Victoria Martínez-López, Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho, Belén Liedo, Jon Rueda and Alberto Molina-Pérez
Philosophies 2022, 7(5), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies7050107 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3948
Abstract
Altruism and solidarity are concepts that are closely related to organ donation for transplantation. On the one hand, they are typically used for encouraging people to donate. On the other hand, they also underpin the regulations in force in each country to different [...] Read more.
Altruism and solidarity are concepts that are closely related to organ donation for transplantation. On the one hand, they are typically used for encouraging people to donate. On the other hand, they also underpin the regulations in force in each country to different extents. They are often used indistinctly and equivocally, despite the different ethical implications of each concept. This paper aims to clarify to what extent we can speak of altruism and solidarity in the predominant models of organ donation. It also raises the ethical question of whether these categories are adequate as a basis for such models, bearing in mind that organs are a scarce resource and that a shortage of them may mean that fewer lives are saved or improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solidarity in Bioethics)
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14 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Building Ecological Solidarity: Rewilding Practices as an Example
by Cristian Moyano-Fernández
Philosophies 2022, 7(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies7040077 - 04 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
Solidarity within bioethics is increasingly being recognized as an important means of improving health for all. Its contribution seems particularly relevant when there are injustices or inequalities in health and different individuals or groups are disadvantaged. But the current context of ecological collapse, [...] Read more.
Solidarity within bioethics is increasingly being recognized as an important means of improving health for all. Its contribution seems particularly relevant when there are injustices or inequalities in health and different individuals or groups are disadvantaged. But the current context of ecological collapse, characterized mainly by a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem decline, affects global health in a different way to other factors. This scenario creates new challenges, risks and problems that require new insights from a bioethical perspective. I, therefore, propose an argument in favor of ecological solidarity. The aim of this article is to re-define this concept, outlining which causes should incite action through ecological solidarity and who should be the main recipient of it. To this end, I discuss what the background for practicing ecological solidarity might be: an intrinsically altruistic motivation to attempt to be a better person or a forced response to a political obligation. Finally, by way of example, I argue for rewilding as an effective, practical strategy through which ecological solidarity can be applied in the belief that building ecological solidarity supports a number of key interdependencies and ensures ethical care for the health of the planet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solidarity in Bioethics)
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