Special Issue "Travel Medicine - Series Ⅱ"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Larry Goodyer
Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH, UK
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Travel medicine is a relatively new discipline and the founding of the International Society of Travel Medicine (www.istm.org) occurred in the early 1990s. Pharmacist have, in recent years, become increasingly involved in delivering travel medicine services in the community sector. This has evolved in a number of countries where community pharmacists are now providing a travel vaccination service and are running travel clinics to prepare travellers prior to departure. Pharmacists have also become involved in other aspects of travel medicine, such as providing specialist medical kits for travel and expeditions, and in the management of a variety of infectious diseases encountered by travellers.

In this Special Issue of Pharmacy we are seeking, in particular, reviews and case studies that describe the involvement of pharmacists in providing travel medicine services, which might relate to a particular country or region. As such, activities that are linked to general vaccination services provided through pharmacies are of interest. Authors are also invited to submit articles or original research that might relate to medicines or other health-related products used in travel medicine.

The principle aim of this Special Issue is to share good practices amongst pharmacists providing travel medicine services. We hope that this will encourage further involvement of the profession in this growing speciality.

Prof. Larry Goodyer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Travel Medicine
  • Pharmacy
  • Community
  • Travel
  • Practice
  • Vaccination

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Australian Hajj Pilgrims’ Health Behavior before, during and after Hajj, and the Effective Use of Preventive Measures in Reducing Hajj-Related Illness: A Cohort Study
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020078 - 04 May 2020
Abstract
This study assessed Australian Hajj pilgrims’ knowledge, attitude and practices throughout their Hajj journey to understand their health behaviors, use of preventative measures and development of illness symptoms. A prospective cohort study with data collection at three phases (before, during and after Hajj) [...] Read more.
This study assessed Australian Hajj pilgrims’ knowledge, attitude and practices throughout their Hajj journey to understand their health behaviors, use of preventative measures and development of illness symptoms. A prospective cohort study with data collection at three phases (before, during and after Hajj) was conducted among Australian pilgrims between August and December 2015. Baseline data were collected from 421 pilgrims before Hajj, with 391 providing follow-up data during Hajj and 300 after their home return. Most participants (78% [329/421]) received one or more recommended vaccines; travel agents’ advice was the main factor affecting vaccination uptake. Most participants (69% [270/391]) practiced hand hygiene with soap and sanitizers frequently, followed by disposable handkerchief use (36% [139/391]) and washing hands with water only (28% [111/391]). During Hajj 74% (288/391) of participants reported one or more illness symptoms, 86% (248/288) of these symptoms were respiratory. Cough was less often reported among pilgrims who received vaccinations, cleaned their hands with soap or alcoholic hand rubs, while a runny nose was less common among those who frequently washed their hands with plain water but was more common among those who used facemasks. This study reveals that most Australian Hajj pilgrims complied with key preventative measures, and that tour group operators’ advice played an important role in compliance. Pilgrims who were vaccinated and practiced hand hygiene were less likely to report infection symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Travel Medicine - Series Ⅱ)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Testing of a Clinical Practice Framework for Pharmacists to Assess Patients’ Travel-Related Risks: The 5W Approach to Travel Risk Identification
Pharmacy 2019, 7(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7040159 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Objective: To assist with identifying patients who may be managed by pharmacists without additional travel medicine training, versus those who may benefit from referral, we developed and validated a clinical practice framework. This framework was then piloted in eight pharmacies in Ontario, [...] Read more.
Objective: To assist with identifying patients who may be managed by pharmacists without additional travel medicine training, versus those who may benefit from referral, we developed and validated a clinical practice framework. This framework was then piloted in eight pharmacies in Ontario, Canada, from March to August 2019. Methods: A panel of experts, comprised of physicians and pharmacists from Ontario, Canada, holding a Certificate in Travel HealthTM from the International Society of Travel Medicine was recruited. This panel participated electronically in the development of the framework in three stages: (1) Sharing their current approach when performing information gathering and assessing risk in a traveling patient; (2) judging of items collated from all panellists on the basis of how essential they are to a risk assessment; and (3) validation of items deemed essential by the panel using the Item and Average Content Validity Index. The framework was then released to community pharmacies, where pharmacists that self-identified as beginners to travel medicine completed pre- and post-test phase surveys to determine the utility of the framework. Key Findings: A total of 64 items for consideration were deemed essential enough to proceed to content validation, organized into 5 ‘W’ domains: Who, What, Where, When, and Why. Each item was ranked by the experts according to its relevancy, resulting in an Average-Content Validity Index of 0.91. The resulting framework was titled “The 5W Approach to Travel Risk Identification.” This clinical practice framework is the first published assessment tool for travel medicine tailored for pharmacy’s scope of practice that has been content validated. Pharmacists reported that the framework is simple to use and provides structure for interactions with travelling patients. However, it may not be as beneficial for those with a higher level of travel medicine expertise than the average pharmacist. Conclusion: The 5W Approach tool allows pharmacists inexperienced in travel medicine to collect information when required to use their professional judgement when assessing traveling patients as either high-risk (requiring a referral to a travel medicine specialist) or low-risk. With the aim of supporting pharmacists to be more confident in caring for traveling patients and increasing their involvement in travel medicine, future research will test this framework for feasibility in Canadian community pharmacy practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Travel Medicine - Series Ⅱ)
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Open AccessArticle
Managing Medical Emergencies in Hungarian Pharmacies
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030095 - 17 Jul 2019
Abstract
To amass a body of knowledge for managing emergency situations in pharmacies, we surveyed the occurrence and nature of medical problems in Hungarian pharmacies. The occurrence of real or suspected emergencies in pharmacies was markedly different and varied from 1–52 per year, with [...] Read more.
To amass a body of knowledge for managing emergency situations in pharmacies, we surveyed the occurrence and nature of medical problems in Hungarian pharmacies. The occurrence of real or suspected emergencies in pharmacies was markedly different and varied from 1–52 per year, with five cases per year on average. The most frequent problems were bleeding (69%) and dizziness (55%), but other more serious problems (allergic reaction (32%), collapse (23%), and chest pain (25%)) also occurred. Sometimes more than one symptom was reported by a patient. People appear to consider pharmacies to be an appropriate site for receiving first aid for minor ailments, including common medical problems (e.g., fever (12%)). Unfortunately, the range of interventions was very limited because of local legal regulations and the lack of appropriate guidelines for emergencies in pharmacies. The most frequent interventions were wound treatment, control of bleeding (78%), alleviation of anxiety (68%), and providing patients with a glass of water (55%). Very often, more than one intervention was reported for the same case. Whereas 76.3% of pharmacists provided interventions only for adults, 21% of pharmacists provided interventions for all types of patients (adults, co-workers in pharmacies, and children). Pharmacists appeared to be reluctant to treat children, owing to the special issues related to pediatrics. This poor range of intervention should encourage responsible officials to develop guidelines for pharmacists to ensure pharmacists’ familiarity with the appropriate interventions in emergency situations. Such knowledge could also provide a good basis for preparing pharmacists to perform vaccinations in the future. The pharmacists had a positive attitude toward providing first aid, and 88% of respondents requested more postgraduate education on medical first aid issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Travel Medicine - Series Ⅱ)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of Guidelines/Guidance from Various Countries Around the World for the Prevention and Management of Travellers’ Diarrhoea: A Pharmacist’s Perspective
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030107 - 04 Aug 2019
Abstract
International travel is growing and pharmacists are well placed to provide travel health services for the prevention and management of travellers’ diarrhoea (TD). Legislation changes in many countries has enabled pharmacists to access prescription only medicines and vaccinations to provide advice and over [...] Read more.
International travel is growing and pharmacists are well placed to provide travel health services for the prevention and management of travellers’ diarrhoea (TD). Legislation changes in many countries has enabled pharmacists to access prescription only medicines and vaccinations to provide advice and over the counter medicines for the prevention and management for travel health services; this makes sense since pharmacies are easily accessible to the public and are the patient’s first port of call in the event of any illness. Currently, whilst many guidelines/guidance exist worldwide for the prevention and management of TD, there is no review that focuses on similarities and differences between these and between guidelines on TD and travel related and non-travel related acute diarrhoea. There is also a lack of publication on legislation and the need for evidence based training for all prescribers to provide travel health services. The aims of this work were to review guidelines/guidance for the prevention and management of TD from across the world which were compared with each other as were the TD guidelines compared to that for travel related and non-travel related acute diarrhoea for similarities and differences, with a focus on any relevant pharmacy legislation, needs assessments and training that may impact upon provision of travel health services by pharmacists focusing mainly on TD in adults. The PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane database were used to carry out an online search for publications on TD, acute diarrhoea and the guidance pharmacists have in the prevention and management of diarrhoea. The literature reviewed in this article indicates that where no specific guidelines/guidance existed, some pharmacists used the WHO guidelines (WHO), highlighting a need for local, regional and national evidence based guidelines in these countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Travel Medicine - Series Ⅱ)
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