Special Issue "Pharmacist Contraception Services"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sally Rafie
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, CA 92103, USA and Birth Control Pharmacist, San Diego, CA 92122, USA.
Interests: role of pharmacists and pharmacies in family planning care, public health and advanced pharmacist practice

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The role of pharmacists and pharmacies in the delivery of contraception care and related services is rapidly expanding. There have been challenges to realizing the full reach and impact of these services.
We invite you to share your views and research by submitting a manuscript to the “Pharmacist Contraception Services” Special Issue in the journal Pharmacy—an open-access journal with a focus on pharmacy education and practice.
For this Special Issue, we seek manuscripts including, but not limited to the following topics related to pharmacist contraception services: (1) training and education, (2) implementation, (3) payment for services, (4) clinical outcomes, (5) public awareness, and (6) policy. We seek manuscripts of all types including: (1) reviews, (2) commentaries, (3) idea papers, (4) case studies, (5) demonstration studies, and (6) research studies.
If the Special Issue publishes more than 10 papers, the publisher will print a book edition that would be made available, both in digital format for free and in paperback format available by order.
I hope this Special Issue will inspire pharmacists, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to consider adopting best practices and addressing the remaining challenges to realize the full potential of pharmacist contraception services in serving our communities.
Please feel free to contact me with any ideas or questions. I look forward to your submissions.

Dr. Sally Rafie
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • contraception
  • hormonal contraception
  • emergency contraception
  • birth control
  • pharmacist prescribing
  • pharmacy access

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Availability of Emergency Contraception in New Brunswick Pharmacies: A Mystery-Client Telephone Study
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020076 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
Although levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills (LNg-ECPs) have been available over the counter in Canada for more than a decade, barriers to access persist. We aimed to obtain information about the availability and cost of LNg-ECPs in New Brunswick. Using a mystery-client study design, [...] Read more.
Although levonorgestrel-only emergency contraceptive pills (LNg-ECPs) have been available over the counter in Canada for more than a decade, barriers to access persist. We aimed to obtain information about the availability and cost of LNg-ECPs in New Brunswick. Using a mystery-client study design, we called all 207 non-specialty pharmacies in the province posing as a 17-year-old woman seeking something to prevent pregnancy after sex. We evaluated the information provided for accuracy and quality. The overwhelming majority of pharmacies (n = 180, 87%) had at least one brand of LNg-ECPs in stock; the price averaged CAD28.69 (USD21.65). Although the majority of pharmacy representatives provided accurate information about LNg-ECPs, a small number made incorrect statements about the timeframe for use, side effects, and mechanism of action. In nine interactions (4%) pharmacy representatives incorrectly indicated that a male partner could not obtain LNg-ECPs; none indicated that parental involvement was required to procure LNg-ECPs. None of the pharmacy representatives referenced any other modality of emergency contraception, including ulipristal acetate. Our findings suggest that LNg-ECPs are widely available and that most pharmacy representatives are providing accurate medical and regulatory information. However, supporting the continuing education of pharmacists and pharmacy staff, particularly around alternative modalities of emergency contraception, appears warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Contraception Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescents’ Perceptions of Contraception Access through Pharmacies
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020053 - 28 Mar 2020
Abstract
Adolescent pregnancy is an important public health issue, and pharmacist prescribing has the potential to expand contraceptive access and decrease unintended pregnancy. However, little is known about acceptability and uptake of pharmacist prescribing among adolescents, particularly among youth in socially and politically conservative [...] Read more.
Adolescent pregnancy is an important public health issue, and pharmacist prescribing has the potential to expand contraceptive access and decrease unintended pregnancy. However, little is known about acceptability and uptake of pharmacist prescribing among adolescents, particularly among youth in socially and politically conservative regions of the country. The study objective was to identify how young women in Indiana perceive pharmacist contraceptive prescribing. Participants were recruited from clinics and completed a simulated pharmacist contraception-prescribing encounter; a demographic and behavioral questionnaire; and an in-depth qualitative interview focused on adolescent perspectives on pharmacist prescribing. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Sixty young women aged 14–21 years (mean age 17.0 ± 1.7 years) completed in-depth interviews. The majority expressed interest in pharmacist contraceptive prescribing (n = 33, 55.9%). Three overarching themes were identified, focusing on accessibility; quality of care; and pharmacist knowledge and youth friendliness. Subthemes highlighted the need for improved confidential access; a desire for additional pharmacist training in contraception; and interactions with a pharmacist that can relate to the young person. Increased awareness of the perceptions of young people can inform state policies and pharmacy protocols. Pharmacists, because of their accessibility, are well poised and equipped to assist in this public health concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Contraception Services)
Open AccessArticle
Over-The-Counter Availability of Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception in Pharmacies on Oahu
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010020 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
Since the United States Food and Drug Administration’s approval of over-the-counter levonorgestrel emergency contraception, access to this time-sensitive medication has improved. However, multiple barriers, including the cost of the medication and pharmacy availability, still exist. The objective of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
Since the United States Food and Drug Administration’s approval of over-the-counter levonorgestrel emergency contraception, access to this time-sensitive medication has improved. However, multiple barriers, including the cost of the medication and pharmacy availability, still exist. The objective of this study was to determine the over-the-counter availability of levonorgestrel emergency contraception in pharmacies on Oahu, Hawaii. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study using in-person simulated patient encounters at all pharmacies on Oahu. Out of 109 chain pharmacies and 13 independent pharmacies, 102 (84%) pharmacies had levonorgestrel emergency contraception available over the counter. Of pharmacies in which it was available, 12.7% required an employee to unlock the medication, 37.3% required the medication to be unlocked at the register, 29.4% were packaged in a large plastic box, and 3.9% were packaged in a blister pack. Levonorgestrel emergency contraception is widely available as an over-the-counter medication in pharmacies on Oahu, yet there are packaging and display practices that make it less accessible. Many of these practices could be improved with pharmacy education or changes in store policies. Systems-based interventions are needed to improve the access to levonorgestrel emergency contraception as an over-the-counter medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Contraception Services)
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Open AccessCommentary
Pharmacists and Contraception in the Inpatient Setting
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020082 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
The choice of contraceptive method should be based on patient specific factors, patient preference, and method-specific properties. In this article, we review opportunities for an inpatient clinical pharmacist to assist in the selection and counseling of contraceptives in hospitalized patients. An inpatient pharmacist [...] Read more.
The choice of contraceptive method should be based on patient specific factors, patient preference, and method-specific properties. In this article, we review opportunities for an inpatient clinical pharmacist to assist in the selection and counseling of contraceptives in hospitalized patients. An inpatient pharmacist has the opportunity to discuss various contraceptive methods with the patient, ensuring an appropriate method is used after discharge, which is especially important after the occurrence of a contraception-related adverse effect or contraindication to certain contraceptive methods. Barriers, such as formulary restrictions, can limit inpatient initiation of contraceptive therapy while hospitalized, but pharmacists can provide education on appropriate alternatives. Inpatient clinical pharmacists can also make recommendations for contraceptive methods in special populations. It is crucial to select an appropriate therapy in patients with an underlying medical condition, such as those with active or history of breast cancer, psychiatric disorder, or thrombophilia, as inappropriate therapy can cause an increased risk of harm. Pharmacists can assist in contraceptive counseling, evaluating for drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, and recommending the most appropriate therapy in special populations. An inpatient pharmacist has the opportunity to interact with the medical team and assist in navigation of teratogenic medication use and Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Contraception Services)
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