Special Issue "Respiratory Pathogens"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marek L. Kowalski
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Immunology, Rheumatology and Allergy, Medical University of Łódź, ul. Pomorska 251, bud. C-5, Łódź 92-213, Poland
Interests: respiratory infections; Viruses and bacteria in exacerbation of chronic airway diseases; epithelial immune response to viral infections; pathogenesis and management of bronchial asthma

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Respiratory infections represent the most common disorders affecting today’s population. The clinical spectrum of respiratory infections ranges from generally mild upper airway symptoms, such as the common cold, to severe lower airway pathology, such as pneumonia. In susceptible populations (e.g., children, elderly subjects or immunocompromised persons) or in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD and asthma), respiratory infections contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Both viruses and bacteria may be involved in the etiology of respiratory infections, and viral-bacterial co-infections are becoming even more challenging for clinicians and researchers. The list of respiratory pathogens is long and has been extending in recent decades with new pathogens emerging and re-emerging. The development of new molecular methodology studies on the compositions of both upper and lower airway microbiomes in various patient populations is becoming even more important for understanding the pathogenesis of respiratory infections, as well as for development of new prevention and retreatment modalities. For this Special Issue of the journal Pathogens, we invite you to submit research papers and review articles relating to the broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens and respiratory infections. Papers on basic, translational and clinical aspects, including management and prevention of infections are welcome. We are looking forward to publish your state of the art research results and reviews.

Prof. Dr Marek L. Kowalski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • upper and lower respiratory infections
  • common cold
  • pneumonia
  • asthma/copd exacerbation
  • rhinoviruses
  • influenza viruses
  • respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)
  • human coronaviruses
  • human metapneumoviruses
  • parainfluenza viruses
  • a streptococcus
  • pneumococcus
  • bordetella pertussis
  • atypical pathogens
  • airway microbiome

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Aetiology of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among Children Under Five Years in Accra, Ghana
Pathogens 2015, 4(1), 22-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens4010022 - 26 Jan 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the aetiological agents and clinical presentations associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among children under five years old at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study carried from February to December 2001. Nasopharyngeal [...] Read more.
The study aimed to investigate the aetiological agents and clinical presentations associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among children under five years old at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study carried from February to December 2001. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and venous blood specimens obtained from 108 children with features suggestive of ALRI, were cultured and the isolated bacterial organisms were identified biochemically. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were also tested for Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) antigen using a commercial kit (Becton Dickinson Directigen RSV test kit). A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was also used to detect and characterize RSV using extracted RNA. Socio-demographic and clinical data were also obtained from the study subjects. Bronchopneumonia (55.5%), bronchiolitis (25%), lobar pneumonia (10.2), non-specific ALRI (4.6%), TB, bronchitis and respiratory distress (0.67%) were diagnosed. The prevalence of septicaemia was 10% and bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and enteric bacteria, including Salmonella spp., Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp, were isolated. Out of the 108 cases, 18% tested positive for RSV, with two cases having RSV as the only aetiological pathogen detected. The subtyping analysis of RSV strains by a multiplex RT-PCR showed that subgroups A and B circulated in the season of analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Pathogens)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Bacterial Adaptation during Chronic Respiratory Infections
Pathogens 2015, 4(1), 66-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens4010066 - 02 Mar 2015
Cited by 66
Abstract
Chronic lung infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality for individuals with underlying respiratory conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The process of chronic colonisation allows pathogens to adapt over time to cope with changing selection [...] Read more.
Chronic lung infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality for individuals with underlying respiratory conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The process of chronic colonisation allows pathogens to adapt over time to cope with changing selection pressures, co-infecting species and antimicrobial therapies. These adaptations can occur due to environmental pressures in the lung such as inflammatory responses, hypoxia, nutrient deficiency, osmolarity, low pH and antibiotic therapies. Phenotypic adaptations in bacterial pathogens from acute to chronic infection include, but are not limited to, antibiotic resistance, exopolysaccharide production (mucoidy), loss in motility, formation of small colony variants, increased mutation rate, quorum sensing and altered production of virulence factors associated with chronic infection. The evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic lung infection has been widely studied. More recently, the adaptations that other chronically colonising respiratory pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia cepacia complex and Haemophilus influenzae undergo during chronic infection have also been investigated. This review aims to examine the adaptations utilised by different bacterial pathogens to aid in their evolution from acute to chronic pathogens of the immunocompromised lung including CF and COPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Pathogens)
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Other

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Open AccessShort Communication
Full Genomic Characterization of a Saffold Virus Isolated in Peru
Pathogens 2015, 4(4), 816-825; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens4040816 - 20 Nov 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain [...] Read more.
While studying respiratory infections of unknown etiology we detected Saffold virus in an oropharyngeal swab collected from a two-year-old female suffering from diarrhea and respiratory illness. The full viral genome recovered by deep sequencing showed 98% identity to a previously described Saffold strain isolated in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Peruvian Saffold strain belongs to genotype 3 and is most closely related to strains that have circulated in Asia. This is the first documented case report of Saffold virus in Peru and the only complete genomic characterization of a Saffold-3 isolate from the Americas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Pathogens)
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