Special Issue "Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA"

A special issue of Particles (ISSN 2571-712X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 14516

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Peter Senger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
2. Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, National Research Nuclear University, 115409 Moscow, Russia
Interests: the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions as created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. This includes questions like the high-density equation-of-state and new phases of QCD matter
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Arkadiy Taranenko
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, National Research Nuclear University, 115409 Moscow, Russia
Interests: high-density nuclear matter with hadrons beams
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ilya Selyuzhenkov
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
Interests: relativistic heavy ion collisions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are happy to announce that selected papers from the work presented at the international workshop “Analysis techniques for centrality determination and flow measurements at FAIR and NICA” (http://indico.oris.mephi.ru/event/181) will be published in this Special Issue of Particles, an MDPI open access journal. The papers submitted to this Special Issue are expected to reflect original work or be a balanced review of a field. All submissions will be peer-reviewed by internationally recognized experts. The workshop aims to promote scientific exchange and the development of novel ideas in the area of analysis techniques for event characterization (centrality and reaction plane determination) and flow measurements in heavy-ion collisions at future CBM (FAIR) and MPD (NICA) experiments. Related experimental activities with relativistic heavy-ions at GSI (HADES), at the Nuclotron ([email protected]), at SPS (NA61/SHINE) and at RHIC BES (STAR) will also be discussed.

As Guest Editors, we would like to invite you to submit your unpublished and original research relevant to this topic for publication in this Special Issue of Particles. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for submissions from the conference will be waived.

Prof. Dr. Peter Senger
Prof. Dr. Arkadiy Taranenko
Prof. Dr. Ilya Selyuzhenkov
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Particles is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Article
Data-Driven Methods for Spectator Symmetry Plane Estimation in CBM Experiment at FAIR
Particles 2021, 4(3), 354-360; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4030030 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR aims to study the area of the QCD phase diagram at high net baryon densities and moderate temperatures with collisions of heavy ions at sNN=2.8–4.9 GeV. The anisotropic transverse flow is [...] Read more.
The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR aims to study the area of the QCD phase diagram at high net baryon densities and moderate temperatures with collisions of heavy ions at sNN=2.8–4.9 GeV. The anisotropic transverse flow is one of the most important observable phenomena in a study of the properties of matter created in such collisions. Flow measurements require the knowledge of the collision symmetry plane, which can be determined from the deflection of the collision spectators in the plane transverse to the direction of the moving ions. The CBM performance for projectile spectator symmetry plane estimation is studied with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations using collisions of gold ions with beam momentum of 12A GeV/c generated with the DCM-QGSM-SMM model. Different data-driven methods to extract the correction factor in flow analysis for the resolution of the spectator symmetry plane estimated with the CBM Projectile Spectator Detector are investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
CBM Performance for Λ Hyperon Directed Flow Measurements in Au + Au Collisions at 12A GeV/c
Particles 2021, 4(2), 288-295; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020025 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1102
Abstract
We present the current status of the performance studies of Λ hyperon directed flow measurement with the CBM experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt. Kalman Filter mathematics is used to reconstruct Λpπ weak decay kinematics, while the [...] Read more.
We present the current status of the performance studies of Λ hyperon directed flow measurement with the CBM experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt. Kalman Filter mathematics is used to reconstruct Λpπ weak decay kinematics, while the Particle Finder Simple package is used to optimize criteria for Λ hyperon candidate selection. Directed flow of Λ hyperons is studied as a function of rapidity, transverse momentum and collision centrality. The effects on flow measurement due to non-uniformity of the CBM detector response in the azimuthal angle, transverse momentum and rapidity are corrected using the QnTools analysis framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
Relating Charged Particle Multiplicity to Impact Parameter in Heavy-Ion Collisions at NICA Energies
Particles 2021, 4(2), 275-287; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020024 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
The size and evolution of the matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions strongly depend on collision geometry, defined by the impact parameter. However, the impact parameter cannot be measured directly in an experiment but might be inferred from final state observables using the [...] Read more.
The size and evolution of the matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions strongly depend on collision geometry, defined by the impact parameter. However, the impact parameter cannot be measured directly in an experiment but might be inferred from final state observables using the centrality procedure. We present the procedure of centrality determination for the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) at the NICA collider and its performance using the multiplicity of produced charged particles at midrapidity. The validity of the procedure is assessed using the simulated data for Au + Au collisions at sNN = 4–11 GeV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
Application of FHCal for Heavy-Ion Collision Centrality Determination in MPD/NICA Experiment
Particles 2021, 4(2), 236-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020022 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Two approaches related to the centrality determination in heavy-ion Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiments, using charge-particles multiplicity in Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the energy deposition in Forward Hadron Calorimeter (FHCal) are discussed. The main features of the FHCal are the fine transverse segmentation [...] Read more.
Two approaches related to the centrality determination in heavy-ion Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiments, using charge-particles multiplicity in Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the energy deposition in Forward Hadron Calorimeter (FHCal) are discussed. The main features of the FHCal are the fine transverse segmentation and the beam holes in the center of the calorimeters. Leaking the heavy non-interacting fragments (spectators) leads to ambiguity in the dependence of energy deposition in the FHCal on the collision centrality. However, the calorimeter transverse segmentation allows one to measure the energy distributions in each of the FHCal modules and to construct combined observables to resolve the problems associated with the beam hole. The comparison of these approaches in the collision centrality measurements is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
Using Spectator Matter for Centrality Determination in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions
Particles 2021, 4(2), 227-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020021 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
One of the common methods to measure the centrality of nucleus-nucleus collision events consists of detecting forward spectator neutrons. Because of non-monotonic dependence of neutron numbers on centrality, other characteristics of spectator matter in 197Au–197Au collisions at NICA must be [...] Read more.
One of the common methods to measure the centrality of nucleus-nucleus collision events consists of detecting forward spectator neutrons. Because of non-monotonic dependence of neutron numbers on centrality, other characteristics of spectator matter in 197Au–197Au collisions at NICA must be considered to improve the centrality determination. The numbers of spectator deuterons and α-particles and the forward–backward asymmetry of the numbers of free spectator nucleons were calculated with the Abrasion–Ablation Monte Carlo for Colliders (AAMCC) model as functions of event centrality. It was shown that the number of charged fragments per spectator nucleon decreases monotonically with an increase of the impact parameter, and thus can be used to estimate the collision centrality. The conditional probabilities that a given event with specific spectator characteristics belongs to a certain centrality class were calculated by means of AAMCC. Such probabilities can be used as an input to Bayesian or other machine-learning approaches to centrality determination in 197Au–197Au collisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
Heavy-Ion Collisions at FAIR-NICA Energies
Particles 2021, 4(2), 214-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020020 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
The “Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research” (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, and the “Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility” (NICA) in Dubna, Russia, are two accelerator centers under construction. FAIR will provide beams and experimental setups to perform forefront research in hadron, nuclear, atomic, and [...] Read more.
The “Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research” (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, and the “Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility” (NICA) in Dubna, Russia, are two accelerator centers under construction. FAIR will provide beams and experimental setups to perform forefront research in hadron, nuclear, atomic, and plasma physics, as well as in radiation biology and material science. At NICA, a unique research program on nuclear matter and spin physics will be conducted. Both facilities will execute experiments to explore the properties of QCD matter at neutron star core densities, in order to study the high-density equation of state, and to shed light on the quark degrees-of-freedom emerging in QCD matter at high densities. The research programs will be performed at FAIR with the CBM experiment, and at NICA with the MPD setup at the collider, and with the [email protected] experiment at the Nuclotron. These three experiments are complementary, with respect to the beam energy. The physics programs and the relevant experimental observables will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
Probing Dense QCD Matter: Muon Measurements with the CBM Experiment at FAIR
Particles 2021, 4(2), 205-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020019 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt is designed to investigate the properties of high-density QCD matter with multi-differential measurements of hadrons and leptons, including rare probes such as multi-strange anti-hyperons and [...] Read more.
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt is designed to investigate the properties of high-density QCD matter with multi-differential measurements of hadrons and leptons, including rare probes such as multi-strange anti-hyperons and charmed particles. The research program covers the study of the high-density equation-of-state of nuclear matter and the exploration of the QCD phase diagram at large baryon chemical potentials, including the search for quark matter and the critical endpoint of a hypothetical 1st order phase transition. The CBM setup comprises detector systems for the identification of charged hadrons, electrons, and muons; for the determination of collision centrality and the orientation of the reaction plane; and a free-streaming data read-out and acquisition system, which allows online reconstruction and selection of events up to reaction rates of 10 MHz. In this article, emphasis is placed on the measurement of muon pairs in Au-Au collisions at FAIR beam energies, which are unique probes used to determine the temperature of the fireball, and hence to search for a caloric curve of QCD matter. Simultaneously, the subthreshold production of charmonium can be studied via its dimuon decay in order to shed light on the microscopic structure of QCD matter at high baryon densities. The CBM setup with focus on dimuon measurements and the results of the corresponding physics performance studies will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
A Vector Finder Toolkit for Track Reconstruction in MPD ITS
Particles 2021, 4(2), 186-193; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020017 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
As a part of the future upgrade program of the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiment at the Nuclotron-Based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) complex, an Inner Tracking System (ITS) made of Monolitic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPSs) is proposed between the beam pipe and the Time [...] Read more.
As a part of the future upgrade program of the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiment at the Nuclotron-Based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) complex, an Inner Tracking System (ITS) made of Monolitic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPSs) is proposed between the beam pipe and the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). It is expected that the new detector will enhance the experimental potential for the reconstruction of short-lived particles—in particular, those containing the open charm particle. To study the detector performance and select its best configuration, a track reconstruction approach based on a constrained combinatorial search was developed and implemented as a software toolkit called Vector Finder. This paper describes the proposed approach and demonstrates its characteristics for primary and secondary track finding in ITS, ITS-to-TPC track matching and hyperon reconstruction within the MPD software framework. The results were obtained on a set of simulated central gold–gold collision events at sNN=9 GeV with an average multiplicity of ∼1000 charged particles in the detector acceptance produced with the Ultra-Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) generator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Article
Techniques for Reconstruction of Strange Objects at MPD
Particles 2021, 4(2), 178-185; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020016 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Study of the strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions is one of the most important parts of the physics program of the MPD experiment at the NICA collider. Therefore, the problem of a reliable and efficient reconstruction of strange objects should be addressed with [...] Read more.
Study of the strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions is one of the most important parts of the physics program of the MPD experiment at the NICA collider. Therefore, the problem of a reliable and efficient reconstruction of strange objects should be addressed with a high priority during the preparation to the experiment. The paper describes the approach to this task which was developed and implemented as a part of the MPD software. Some results of its application during the detector Monte Carlo feasibility studies are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Conference Report
Anisotropic Flow Measurements of Identified Hadrons with MPD Detector at NICA
Particles 2021, 4(2), 146-158; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4020014 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 986
Abstract
The primary scientific mission of the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) at the accelerator Nuclotron-based Ion Collider facility (NICA) (Dubna) is to investigate the properties of strongly interacting matter at high net-baryon densities. The goal of this work is to study the performance of the [...] Read more.
The primary scientific mission of the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) at the accelerator Nuclotron-based Ion Collider facility (NICA) (Dubna) is to investigate the properties of strongly interacting matter at high net-baryon densities. The goal of this work is to study the performance of the MPD detector for directed and elliptic flow measurements of identified hadrons by using the realistic Monte Carlo simulations of heavy-ion collisions at energies sNN = 4.5 − 11 GeV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Conference Report
Reconstruction of Photon Conversions in the MPD Experiment
Particles 2021, 4(1), 55-62; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4010008 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Spectra of thermal photons carry important information on the temperature of the hot and dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions. Photons can be measured via their conversion into electron-positron pairs in the detector material. In this contribution, challenges in the photon reconstruction [...] Read more.
Spectra of thermal photons carry important information on the temperature of the hot and dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions. Photons can be measured via their conversion into electron-positron pairs in the detector material. In this contribution, challenges in the photon reconstruction are discussed and feasibility studies on photon conversion measurements in the future multipurpose detector (MPD) experiment at NICA are presented. The obtained results indicate good prospects for thermal photon measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Conference Report
Deep Learning Based Impact Parameter Determination for the CBM Experiment
Particles 2021, 4(1), 47-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4010006 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
In this talk we presented a novel technique, based on Deep Learning, to determine the impact parameter of nuclear collisions at the CBM experiment. PointNet based Deep Learning models are trained on UrQMD followed by CBMRoot simulations of Au+Au collisions at 10 A [...] Read more.
In this talk we presented a novel technique, based on Deep Learning, to determine the impact parameter of nuclear collisions at the CBM experiment. PointNet based Deep Learning models are trained on UrQMD followed by CBMRoot simulations of Au+Au collisions at 10 AGeV to reconstruct the impact parameter of collisions from raw experimental data such as hits of the particles in the detector planes, tracks reconstructed from the hits or their combinations. The PointNet models can perform fast, accurate, event-by-event impact parameter determination in heavy ion collision experiments. They are shown to outperform a simple model which maps the track multiplicity to the impact parameter. While conventional methods for centrality classification merely provide an expected impact parameter distribution for a given centrality class, the PointNet models predict the impact parameter from 2–14 fm on an event-by-event basis with a mean error of −0.33 to 0.22 fm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Conference Report
Resonance Reconstruction in the MPD
Particles 2021, 4(1), 29-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4010003 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
The study of hadronic resonance production is an essential part of the physical programs of many heavy-ion experiments. Detailed measurement of the resonance properties is also foreseen in the future Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiment at the NICA collider. In this report, we focus [...] Read more.
The study of hadronic resonance production is an essential part of the physical programs of many heavy-ion experiments. Detailed measurement of the resonance properties is also foreseen in the future Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiment at the NICA collider. In this report, we focus on the experimental challenges for the reconstruction of resonances in heavy-ion experiments and examine the MPD capabilities for the reconstruction of ρ(770)0, K*(892)0,±, φ(1020), Λ(1520), Σ(1385)± and Ξ(1530)0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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Conference Report
Short-Lived Resonances as Probes of the Medium Produced in Heavy-Ion Collisions
Particles 2021, 4(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles4010001 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Hadronic resonances play an important role in the study of the physics of heavy-ion collisions. In these proceedings, we discuss how the resonances can probe the reaction dynamics, the strangeness production and the properties of the hadronic phase in heavy-ion collisions at center-of-mass [...] Read more.
Hadronic resonances play an important role in the study of the physics of heavy-ion collisions. In these proceedings, we discuss how the resonances can probe the reaction dynamics, the strangeness production and the properties of the hadronic phase in heavy-ion collisions at center-of-mass energies of sNN = 4–11 GeV. The resonance properties predicted by the general-purpose event generators are found to be very sensitive to the properties and space-time evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis Techniques and Physics Performance Studies for FAIR and NICA)
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