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Open AccessArticle

A Protein Diet Score, Including Plant and Animal Protein, Investigating the Association with HbA1c and eGFR—The PREVIEW Project

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland
Department of Pediatrics, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, 18 Carrick Place, Mt Eden, University of Auckland, Auckland 1024, New Zealand
School of Life and Environmental Sciences & Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 763;
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope −0.02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p < 0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein diet score; HbA1c; eGFR; healthy subjects; population studies protein diet score; HbA1c; eGFR; healthy subjects; population studies
MDPI and ACS Style

Møller, G.; Sluik, D.; Ritz, C.; Mikkilä, V.; Raitakari, O.T.; Hutri-Kähönen, N.; Dragsted, L.O.; Larsen, T.M.; Poppitt, S.D.; Silvestre, M.P.; Feskens, E.J.; Brand-Miller, J.; Raben, A. A Protein Diet Score, Including Plant and Animal Protein, Investigating the Association with HbA1c and eGFR—The PREVIEW Project. Nutrients 2017, 9, 763.

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