This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance.
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