Special Issue "Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Lipids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (2 July 2021) | Viewed by 14500

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Barbara Meyer
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia
Interests: omega-3; lipids; pregnancy; behaviour
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Renate de Groot
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department Head Conditions for a Life Long Learning, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Open Universiteit. Valkenburgerweg 177. 6419 AT Heerlen, The Netherlands
Interests: n-3LCPUFA; biopsychological determinants of lifelong learning and development; brain functioning; behaviour; nutrition; physical activity; cognition; mental health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) comprise of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There are numerous studies on the physical health benefits of n-3 LCPUFA including cardiovascular health benefits but there are other emerging benefits.

Human behaviour is the potential and expressed capacity (mentally, physically, and socially) of human individuals or groups to respond to internal and external stimuli throughout their life. One potential external stimulus is n-3LCPUFA supplementation. For the current special issue we are looking for submissions dealing with the effect of n-3LCPUFA supplementation on any aspect of human behaviour or disorders of human behaviour. Examples include but are not limited to n-3LCPUFA supplementation trials in healthy people from all ages and/or in people with a disorder such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control, anxiety disorders, depression disorders, self-regulation disorders, psychosis, aggression, hostility and so on.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour", welcomes the submissions of manuscripts which either include evidence-based original human clinical trial research or reviews of the scientific literature.

Prof. Dr. Barbara Meyer
Prof. Dr. Renate de Groot
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Omega-3
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • Human Behaviour
  • Human Clinical Trial
  • Systematic review studies or meta-analyses

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children: Results of the Omega Kid Pilot Study—A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103561 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Supplementation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) may enhance self-regulation (SR) and executive functioning (EF) in children of preschool age. The aim of the Omega Kid Study was to investigate the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on SR and EF [...] Read more.
Supplementation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) may enhance self-regulation (SR) and executive functioning (EF) in children of preschool age. The aim of the Omega Kid Study was to investigate the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on SR and EF in typically developing preschool-aged children. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial was undertaken, the intervention was 12 weeks and consisted of 1.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day compared to placebo. The HS-Omega-3 Index® was assessed by capillary blood samples at baseline and post-intervention. Seventy-eight children were enrolled and randomised to either the n-3 LCPUFA treatment (n = 39) or placebo (n = 39) group. Post intervention, there was a significant three-fold increase in the HS-Omega-3 Index® in the n-3 LCPUFA group (p < 0.001). There were no improvements in SR or EF outcome variables for the n-3 LCPUFA group post intervention compared to the placebo group determined by linear mixed models. At baseline, there were significant modest positive Spearman correlations found between the HS-Omega-3 index® and both behavioural self-regulation and cognitive self-regulation (r = 0.287, p = 0.015 and r = 0.242, p = 0.015 respectively). Although no treatment effects were found in typically developing children, further research is required to target children with sub-optimal self-regulation who may benefit most from n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Thromboxane, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Homocysteine, and Vitamin D in Depressive Children and Adolescents: Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041095 - 27 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
In the DEPOXIN project, we have found that a high ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with worsening of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with depressive disorder (DD) and that the 12-week omega-3 FA supplementation modulates DD symptoms. Here we [...] Read more.
In the DEPOXIN project, we have found that a high ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids (FA) is associated with worsening of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with depressive disorder (DD) and that the 12-week omega-3 FA supplementation modulates DD symptoms. Here we present our results of the secondary outcomes: the levels of thromboxane (TXB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), homocysteine (HCy) and vitamin D. Fifty-eight patients were randomized into two arms. One group received a fish oil emulsion enriched with omega-3 FA, and the other received a sunflower oil emulsion containing omega-6 FA, for 12 weeks. Depressive symptoms were evaluated, using the Child’s Depressive Inventory (CDI). The patients with DD had elevated TXB levels and decreased vitamin D levels, as compared to healthy controls. Both CDI and omega-6/omega-3 ratio correlated positively with TXB and negatively with BDNF at baseline. Compared to the omega-6 FA group, the supplementation with omega-3 FA for 12 weeks significantly reduced plasma TXB (p = 0.024) and increased BDNF (p = 0.011) levels. No changes in HCy and vitamin D were observed. Our results demonstrate the possible role of TXB and BDNF in the pathophysiology of DD and the benefits of omega-3 FA supplementation. The study was registered with the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN81655012). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Differential Effects of DHA- and EPA-Rich Oils on Sleep in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010248 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that adequate intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which include docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), might be associated with better sleep quality. N-3 PUFAs, which must be acquired from dietary sources, are typically consumed [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests that adequate intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which include docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), might be associated with better sleep quality. N-3 PUFAs, which must be acquired from dietary sources, are typically consumed at suboptimal levels in Western diets. Therefore, the current placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, investigated the effects of an oil rich in either DHA or EPA on sleep quality in healthy adults who habitually consumed low amounts of oily fish. Eighty-four participants aged 25–49 years completed the 26-week intervention trial. Compared to placebo, improvements in actigraphy sleep efficiency (p = 0.030) and latency (p = 0.026) were observed following the DHA-rich oil. However, these participants also reported feeling less energetic compared to the placebo (p = 0.041), and less rested (p = 0.017), and there was a trend towards feeling less ready to perform (p = 0.075) than those given EPA-rich oil. A trend towards improved sleep efficiency was identified in the EPA-rich group compared to placebo (p = 0.087), along with a significant decrease in both total time in bed (p = 0.032) and total sleep time (p = 0.019) compared to the DHA-rich oil. No significant effects of either treatment were identified for urinary excretion of the major melatonin metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. This study was the first to demonstrate some positive effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in healthy adult normal sleepers, and provides novel evidence showing the differential effects of n-3 PUFA supplements rich in either DHA or EPA. Further investigation into the mechanisms underpinning these observations including the effects of n-3 PUFAs on sleep architecture are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Feasibility of the “Omega Kid” Study Protocol: A Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial Investigating the Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Preschool-Aged Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010213 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Self-regulation, the regulation of behaviour in early childhood, impacts children’s success at school and is a predictor of health, wealth, and criminal outcomes in adulthood. Self-regulation may be optimised by dietary supplementation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs). The aim of [...] Read more.
Self-regulation, the regulation of behaviour in early childhood, impacts children’s success at school and is a predictor of health, wealth, and criminal outcomes in adulthood. Self-regulation may be optimised by dietary supplementation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs). The aim of the “Omega Kid” study is to investigate the feasibility of a protocol to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA supplementation enhances self-regulation in preschool-aged children. The protocol assessed involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks duration, with an intervention of 1.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day (0.3 g EPA and 1.3 g DHA) in a microencapsulated powder compared to placebo. Children (n = 78; 40 boys and 38 girls) aged 3–5 years old were recruited and randomly allocated to the treatment (n = 39) or placebo group (n = 39). The HS–Omega-3 Index® served as a manipulation check on the delivery of either active (n-3 LCPUFAs) or placebo powders. Fifty-eight children (76%) completed the intervention (28–30 per group). Compliance to the study protocol was high, with 92% of children providing a finger-prick blood sample at baseline and high reported-adherence to the study intervention (88%). Results indicate that the protocol is feasible and may be employed in an adequately powered clinical trial to test the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA supplementation will improve the self-regulation of preschool-aged children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Importance of EPA and DHA Blood Levels in Brain Structure and Function
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041074 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2947
Abstract
Brain structure and function depend on a constant and sufficient supply with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by blood. Blood levels of EPA and DHA reflect dietary intake and other variables and are preferably assessed as percentage in erythrocytes with a [...] Read more.
Brain structure and function depend on a constant and sufficient supply with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by blood. Blood levels of EPA and DHA reflect dietary intake and other variables and are preferably assessed as percentage in erythrocytes with a well-documented and standardized analytical method (HS-Omega-3 Index®). Every human being has an Omega-3 Index between 2 and 20%, with an optimum of 8–11%. Compared to an optimal Omega-3 Index, a lower Omega-3 Index was associated with increased risk for total mortality and ischemic stroke, reduced brain volume, impaired cognition, accelerated progression to dementia, psychiatric diseases, compromises of complex brain functions, and other brain issues in epidemiologic studies. Most intervention trials, and their meta-analyses considered EPA and DHA as drugs with good bioavailability, a design tending to produce meaningful results in populations characterized by low baseline blood levels (e.g., in major depression), but otherwise responsible for many neutral results and substantial confusion. When trial results were evaluated using blood levels of EPA and DHA measured, effects were larger than comparing EPA and DHA to placebo groups, and paralleled epidemiologic findings. This indicates future trial design, and suggests a targeted use EPA and DHA, based on the Omega-3 Index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Review
Effect of Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 LCPUFA) Supplementation on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review with a Focus on n-3 LCPUFA Blood Values and Dose of DHA and EPA
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103115 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3464
Abstract
Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in the cardiovascular field is effective if a certain Omega-3 index (O3I) is achieved or the daily n-3 LCPUFA dose is high enough. Whether this applies to studies on cognition in [...] Read more.
Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in the cardiovascular field is effective if a certain Omega-3 index (O3I) is achieved or the daily n-3 LCPUFA dose is high enough. Whether this applies to studies on cognition in children and adolescents is unclear. The aims of the current review were to investigate whether: (1) a certain O3I level and (2) a minimum daily n-3 LCPUFA dose are required to improve cognition in 4–25 year olds. Web of Science and PubMed were searched. Inclusion criteria: placebo controlled randomized controlled trial; participants 4–25 years; supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); assessing cognition; in English and ≥10 participants per treatment arm. Thirty-three studies were included, 21 in typically developing participants, 12 in those with a disorder. A positive effect on cognitive measures was more likely in studies with an increase in O3I to >6%. Half of the studies in typically developing children with daily supplementation dose ≥450 mg DHA + EPA showed improved cognition. For children with a disorder no cut-off value was found. In conclusion, daily supplementation of ≥450 mg DHA + EPA per day and an increase in the O3I to >6% makes it more likely to show efficacy on cognition in children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop