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The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Thromboxane, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Homocysteine, and Vitamin D in Depressive Children and Adolescents: Randomized Controlled Trial
 
 
Article

Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children: Results of the Omega Kid Pilot Study—A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909, Australia
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School of Psychology, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Early Start, School of Education, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Brain & Behaviour Research Institute, School of Psychology, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Statistical Consulting Centre, School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870, Australia
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Early Start, School of Health and Society, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Conditions for Lifelong Learning, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands, 6419 Heerlen, The Netherlands
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Fiona Stanley and Fremantle Hospitals Group, South Metropolitan Health Service, Perth, WA 6150, Australia
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School of Medicine, Molecular Horizons, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martine Armand
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103561
Received: 18 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Supplementation and Human Behaviour)
Supplementation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) may enhance self-regulation (SR) and executive functioning (EF) in children of preschool age. The aim of the Omega Kid Study was to investigate the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on SR and EF in typically developing preschool-aged children. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial was undertaken, the intervention was 12 weeks and consisted of 1.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day compared to placebo. The HS-Omega-3 Index® was assessed by capillary blood samples at baseline and post-intervention. Seventy-eight children were enrolled and randomised to either the n-3 LCPUFA treatment (n = 39) or placebo (n = 39) group. Post intervention, there was a significant three-fold increase in the HS-Omega-3 Index® in the n-3 LCPUFA group (p < 0.001). There were no improvements in SR or EF outcome variables for the n-3 LCPUFA group post intervention compared to the placebo group determined by linear mixed models. At baseline, there were significant modest positive Spearman correlations found between the HS-Omega-3 index® and both behavioural self-regulation and cognitive self-regulation (r = 0.287, p = 0.015 and r = 0.242, p = 0.015 respectively). Although no treatment effects were found in typically developing children, further research is required to target children with sub-optimal self-regulation who may benefit most from n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 LCPUFAs; self-regulation; preschool-aged children; executive function; HS-Omega-3 Index® n-3 LCPUFAs; self-regulation; preschool-aged children; executive function; HS-Omega-3 Index®
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roach, L.A.; Byrne, M.K.; Howard, S.J.; Johnstone, S.J.; Batterham, M.; Wright, I.M.R.; Okely, A.D.; de Groot, R.H.M.; van der Wurff, I.S.M.; Jones, A.L.; Meyer, B.J. Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children: Results of the Omega Kid Pilot Study—A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3561. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103561

AMA Style

Roach LA, Byrne MK, Howard SJ, Johnstone SJ, Batterham M, Wright IMR, Okely AD, de Groot RHM, van der Wurff ISM, Jones AL, Meyer BJ. Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children: Results of the Omega Kid Pilot Study—A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2021; 13(10):3561. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103561

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roach, Lauren A., Mitchell K. Byrne, Steven J. Howard, Stuart J. Johnstone, Marijka Batterham, Ian M. R. Wright, Anthony D. Okely, Renate H. M. de Groot, Inge S. M. van der Wurff, Alison L. Jones, and Barbara J. Meyer. 2021. "Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Self-Regulation in Typically Developing Preschool-Aged Children: Results of the Omega Kid Pilot Study—A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial" Nutrients 13, no. 10: 3561. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103561

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