Special Issue "Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Silvio Buscemi
Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Clinical Nutrition-Department Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza (Promise), University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy.
Interests: obesity; diabetes; diet; cardiovascular prevention, endothelial function, indirect calorimetry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension has reached epidemic proportions, especially in the Western world, with a strong impact on cardiovascular events, mortality, health system overload and social costs. These three clinical conditions often cluster together in the metabolic syndrome that recognizes central body fat distribution and insulin resistance, two traits that almost invariably are influenced by inadequate dietary habits and reduced physical activity level. Many studies have described the association between these clinical conditions and the great socioeconomic changes that have characterized our societies in recent decades. We are well-aware that erroneous dietary styles strongly influence the occurrence of these conditions; however, the deeper mechanisms are still not fully understood. While diet and obesity are strictly correlated, the question remains as to whether they concur independent of the development of diabetes and hypertension.

Although many drugs are available, even for obesity, dietary treatment is still recognized as the first-line approach to effectively cure diabetes and hypertension. All guidelines for the treatment of these conditions invariably support diet as the first treatment, the cornerstone of the cure, with all drug treatments to be used only after dietary treatment failure and with an “add-on”, not “instead of”, approach. In addition, we now have different dietary approaches that need to be further characterized and experienced, e.g., the Mediterranean diet, the low-fat diet, the ketogenic diet, the low-glycemic index diet, the DASH diet, and the vegetarian diet. In the case of ketogenic diet, for example, we still do not fully know how it works and what its beneficial health effects really are. Furthermore, the diet industry is producing new foods or components of foods that are thought to contribute to the treatment of these conditions and are still in need of evaluation.

Now more than ever, the planet urgently needs information on these pressing topics. Research is called upon to provide clarification and to correctly support policy-makers and administrators.

Prof. Silvio Buscemi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Diet
  • Ketogenic diet
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Lifestyle

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Thyroid Function in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Apulian Survey
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103173 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
Much research suggests that Mediterranean eating habits and lifestyle contribute to counteract the risk of chronic diseases while promoting longevity, but little information is available on the effects of the Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) on thyroid function, particularly among overweight/obese subjects. Nevertheless, consistent data [...] Read more.
Much research suggests that Mediterranean eating habits and lifestyle contribute to counteract the risk of chronic diseases while promoting longevity, but little information is available on the effects of the Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) on thyroid function, particularly among overweight/obese subjects. Nevertheless, consistent data reported a slight increase in serum levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a higher rate of conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in obesity. This cross-sectional study was aimed at investigating the relationship between adherence to the Med-Diet and circulating thyroid hormones in a cohort of overweight/obese subjects from Apulia (Southern Italy). Methods: We studied 324 consecutive outpatient subjects (228 women and 96 men, age range 14–72 years) taking no drug therapy and showing normal levels of thyroid hormones, but complicated by overweight and obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2). The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) questionnaire was cross-sectionally administered to assess the adherence to the Med-Diet, and hormonal, metabolic, and routine laboratory parameters were collected. Results: Higher adherence to Med-Diet was found to be inversely related to free T3 (p < 0.01) and T4 (p < 0.01) serum levels. Considering each item in the PREDIMED questionnaire, people consuming at least four spoonfuls of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) per day, as well as those consuming at least two servings of vegetables per day, had lower free T3 levels (p 0.033 and p 0.021, respectively). Furthermore, consuming at least four spoonfuls of EVOO per day was found to be associated to lower free T4 serum concentrations (p 0.011). Multinomial logistic regression models, performed on tertiles of thyroid hormones to further investigate the relationship with Med-Diet, corroborated the significance only for free T4. Conclusion: Increased adherence to the Med-Diet was independently associated to a slightly reduced thyroid function, but still within the reference range for free T3 and T4 serum levels. This first finding in this field opens up a research line on any underlying biological interplay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
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