Special Issue "Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Silvio Buscemi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Clinical Nutrition-Department Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza (Promise), University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy.
Interests: obesity; diabetes; diet; cardiovascular prevention, endothelial function, indirect calorimetry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension has reached epidemic proportions, especially in the Western world, with a strong impact on cardiovascular events, mortality, health system overload and social costs. These three clinical conditions often cluster together in the metabolic syndrome that recognizes central body fat distribution and insulin resistance, two traits that almost invariably are influenced by inadequate dietary habits and reduced physical activity level. Many studies have described the association between these clinical conditions and the great socioeconomic changes that have characterized our societies in recent decades. We are well-aware that erroneous dietary styles strongly influence the occurrence of these conditions; however, the deeper mechanisms are still not fully understood. While diet and obesity are strictly correlated, the question remains as to whether they concur independent of the development of diabetes and hypertension.

Although many drugs are available, even for obesity, dietary treatment is still recognized as the first-line approach to effectively cure diabetes and hypertension. All guidelines for the treatment of these conditions invariably support diet as the first treatment, the cornerstone of the cure, with all drug treatments to be used only after dietary treatment failure and with an “add-on”, not “instead of”, approach. In addition, we now have different dietary approaches that need to be further characterized and experienced, e.g., the Mediterranean diet, the low-fat diet, the ketogenic diet, the low-glycemic index diet, the DASH diet, and the vegetarian diet. In the case of ketogenic diet, for example, we still do not fully know how it works and what its beneficial health effects really are. Furthermore, the diet industry is producing new foods or components of foods that are thought to contribute to the treatment of these conditions and are still in need of evaluation.

Now more than ever, the planet urgently needs information on these pressing topics. Research is called upon to provide clarification and to correctly support policy-makers and administrators.

Prof. Silvio Buscemi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Diet
  • Ketogenic diet
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Lifestyle

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Effect of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Butter on Endothelial Function in Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072436 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Post-prandial hyperglycemia can be relevant in developing early manifestations of atherosclerosis. EVOO (Extra Virgin Olive Oil), rich in saturated fatty acids and commonly used in the Mediterranean diet, seems to control post-prandial hyperglycemia better than butter. Subjects with type 1 diabetes are at [...] Read more.
Post-prandial hyperglycemia can be relevant in developing early manifestations of atherosclerosis. EVOO (Extra Virgin Olive Oil), rich in saturated fatty acids and commonly used in the Mediterranean diet, seems to control post-prandial hyperglycemia better than butter. Subjects with type 1 diabetes are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and show endothelial dysfunction, an early manifestation of atherosclerosis in the first years of the disease. Our study aims to evaluate whether EVOO and butter influence endothelial function in subjects with type 1 diabetes when added to a single high glycemic index (HGI) meal. In this exploratory cross-over study, 10 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 6 healthy subjects were scheduled to receive two types of HGI meals: one enriched with EVOO and one with butter. Before and after each test meal at different time points, all subjects underwent the evaluation of endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation technique, glucose and lipids measurements, and gastric emptying assessment by ultrasound. Flow-mediated dilation significantly increased after EVOO-enriched meal compared with butter in subjects with type 1 diabetes (two-way-repeated measurements ANOVA, p = 0.007). In patients with type 1 diabetes, the add-on of EVOO to HGI meal improves vascular function compared to butter, which has detrimental effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Sarcopenia and Appendicular Muscle Mass as Predictors of Impaired Fasting Glucose/Type 2 Diabetes in Elderly Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061909 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Elderly women exhibit a high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but no definitive data exist about the possible role of postmenopausal increases in visceral adiposity, the loss of lean body mass, or decreases in the sum of the lean mass of arms [...] Read more.
Elderly women exhibit a high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but no definitive data exist about the possible role of postmenopausal increases in visceral adiposity, the loss of lean body mass, or decreases in the sum of the lean mass of arms and legs (appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM)). This retrospective, longitudinal study investigated whether body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) predicted the development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or T2D in a cohort of 159 elderly women (age: 71 ± 5 years, follow-up: 94 months) from southern Italy (Clinical Nutrition and Geriatric Units of the “Mater Domini” University Hospital in Catanzaro, Calabria region, and the “P. Giaccone ”University Hospital in Palermo, Sicily region). Sarcopenia was defined in a subgroup of 128 women according to the EWGSOP criteria as the presence of low muscle strength (handgrip strength <16 kg) plus low muscle mass (reported as appendicular skeletal muscle mass <15 kg). Participants with a low ASMM had a higher IFG/T2D incidence than those with a normal ASMM (17% vs. 6%, p-adjusted = 0.044); this finding was independent of BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, and habitual fat intake (OR = 3.81, p = 0.034). A higher incidence of IFG/T2D was observed in the subgroup with sarcopenia than those without sarcopenia (33% vs. 7%, p-adjusted = 0.005) independent of BMI and fat mass (OR = 6.75, p = 0.007). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that elderly women with low ASMM had a higher probability of developing IFG/T2D. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in men and in other age groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Obesity and Circulating Levels of Vitamin D before and after Weight Loss Induced by a Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061829 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Background: Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, also influencing bone tissue. Several studies have reported that vitamin D blood levels were significantly lower in people with obesity, probably due to its uptake by the adipose tissue. Clinical studies [...] Read more.
Background: Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, also influencing bone tissue. Several studies have reported that vitamin D blood levels were significantly lower in people with obesity, probably due to its uptake by the adipose tissue. Clinical studies that investigated the changes of circulating levels of vitamin D following weight loss reported controversial data. A very low-calorie ketogenic diet is acknowledged as a reliable treatment to achieve a rapid weight loss. Therefore, we investigated the effect of weight loss, consequent to a very low-calorie ketogenic diet, on vitamin D blood concentrations. Methods: A cohort of 31 people with obesity underwent a very low-calorie ketogenic diet for 10–12 weeks. The serum concentrations of vitamin D, parathormone, calcium and phosphorous were measured before and after weight loss; they were compared to a control group of 20 non-obese, non-diabetic, age- and gender-matched persons. Results: Patients with obesity had a higher habitual intake of vitamin D than the control group (p < 0.05). However, the vitamin D blood levels of the obese group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.005) and they increased after weight loss (p < 0.001). At baseline, vitamin D blood concentrations of the persons with obesity were significantly correlated with both fat mass–kg (r = −0.40; p < 0.05) and body mass index (r = −0.47; p < 0.01). Following very low-calorie ketogenic diet, the change in vitamin D serum concentrations was correlated only with the change in fat mass–kg (r = −0.43; p < 0.01). Conclusion: This study confirmed that patients with obesity have lower vitamin D levels that normalize after significant weight loss, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D is stored in the adipose tissue and released following weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Strong and Bitter Vegetables from Traditional Cultivars and Cropping Methods Improve the Health Status of Type 2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061813 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Vegetables rich in bitter-tasting phytochemicals may exert enhanced beneficial effects against key factors associated with type two diabetes (T2D). This study investigates whether selected cultivars of bitter and strong-tasting (BST) Brassica and root vegetables exert greater health benefits on T2D patients compared to [...] Read more.
Vegetables rich in bitter-tasting phytochemicals may exert enhanced beneficial effects against key factors associated with type two diabetes (T2D). This study investigates whether selected cultivars of bitter and strong-tasting (BST) Brassica and root vegetables exert greater health benefits on T2D patients compared to equivalent modern mild and sweet tasting (MST) vegetables. A 12-week randomized, controlled, parallel intervention study involved 92 T2D patients, who were allocated three different diets: (1) 500 g daily of bitter and strong-tasting (BST) vegetables; (2) 500 g daily of mild and sweet-tasting (MST) vegetables; (3) 120 g daily MST normal diet (control). Both vegetable diets contained root vegetables and cabbages selected based on sensory differences and content of phytochemicals. Prior to and after the study, all participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 24 h blood pressure measurements, DEXA scans, and fasted blood samples. Both diets high in vegetables significantly reduced the participants’ BMI, total body fat mass, and HbA1c levels compared to control, but in the BST group, significant differences were also found regarding incremental area under the curve glucose 240 min (OGTT) and fasting glucose levels. A high daily intake of root vegetables and cabbages showed significant health improvements in both vegetable groups. BST vegetables had the greatest impact on insulin sensitivity, body fat mass, and blood pressure compared to control; moreover, they further improved glycemic control compared to MST vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Coconut Oil Supplementation Does Not Affect Blood Pressure Variability and Oxidative Stress: A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study in Stage-1 Hypertensive Patients
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030798 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Exploring an alternative to improve the clinical management of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that food supplementation with coconut oil (EVCO), alone or combined with aerobic exercise training, could exert an antihypertensive effect (primary outcome) in patients with stage 1 hypertension. Forty-five hypertensive [...] Read more.
Exploring an alternative to improve the clinical management of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that food supplementation with coconut oil (EVCO), alone or combined with aerobic exercise training, could exert an antihypertensive effect (primary outcome) in patients with stage 1 hypertension. Forty-five hypertensive volunteers of both genders participated in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. The volunteers were submitted to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, analysis of blood pressure variability (BPV), measurement of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and nutritional assessment. Results indicate that EVCO consumption had no adverse effects. The supplementation did not increase the caloric intake compared with placebo, and the dietary constituents were similar between groups, except for the saturated fats, especially lauric acid. The analysis of blood pressure indicated absence of antihypertensive effect of EVCO alone or combined with physical training. Furthermore, no effects on blood pressure variability and oxidative stress were observed in the supplemented hypertensive patients. Thus, despite the results observed in pre-clinical studies, the current clinical study did not provide evidence to support the use of coconut oil as an adjuvant in the management of hypertension in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Breastfeeding Duration and Development of Dysglycemia in Women Who Had Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence from the GUSTO Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020408 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
(1) Background: Breastfeeding has been shown to support glucose homeostasis in women after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is potentially effective at reducing long-term diabetes risk. (2) Methods: Data from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Breastfeeding has been shown to support glucose homeostasis in women after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is potentially effective at reducing long-term diabetes risk. (2) Methods: Data from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study were analyzed to understand the influence of breastfeeding duration on long-term dysglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) risk in women who had GDM in the index pregnancy. GDM and dysglycemia four to seven years postpartum were determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A Poisson regression model with a robust error variance was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for dysglycemia four to seven years post-delivery according to groupings of the duration of any breastfeeding (<1, ≥1 to <6, and ≥6 months). (3) Results: Women who had GDM during the index pregnancy and complete breastfeeding information and OGTT four to seven years postpartum were included in this study (n = 116). Fifty-one women (44%) had postpartum dysglycemia. Unadjusted IRRs showed an inverse association between dysglycemia risk and ≥1 month to <6 months (IRR 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57, 1.43; p = 0.68) and ≥6 months (IRR 0.50; 95% CI 0.27, 0.91; p = 0.02) breastfeeding compared to <1 month of any breastfeeding. After adjusting for key confounders, the IRR for the ≥6 months group remained significant (IRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.22, 0.80; p = 0.008). (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that any breastfeeding of six months or longer may reduce long-term dysglycemia risk in women with a history of GDM in an Asian setting. Breastfeeding has benefits for mothers beyond weight loss, particularly for those with GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mediterranean Diet and Healthy Eating in Subjects with Prediabetes from the Mollerussa Prospective Observational Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010252 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1838
Abstract
We aimed to assess differences in dietary patterns (i.e., Mediterranean diet and healthy eating indexes) between participants with prediabetes and those with normal glucose tolerance. Secondarily, we analyzed factors related to prediabetes and dietary patterns. This was a cross-sectional study design. From a [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess differences in dietary patterns (i.e., Mediterranean diet and healthy eating indexes) between participants with prediabetes and those with normal glucose tolerance. Secondarily, we analyzed factors related to prediabetes and dietary patterns. This was a cross-sectional study design. From a sample of 594 participants recruited in the Mollerussa study cohort, a total of 535 participants (216 with prediabetes and 319 with normal glucose tolerance) were included. The alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) were calculated. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were performed. There was no difference in the mean aMED and aHEI scores between groups (3.2 (1.8) in the normoglycemic group and 3.4 (1.8) in the prediabetes group, p = 0.164 for the aMED and 38.6 (7.3) in the normoglycemic group and 38.7 (6.7) in the prediabetes group, p = 0.877 for the aHEI, respectively). Nevertheless, women had a higher mean of aMED and aHEI scores in the prediabetes group (3.7 (1.9), p = 0.001 and 40.5 (6.9), p < 0.001, respectively); moreover, they had a higher mean of aHEI in the group with normoglycemia (39.8 (6.6); p = 0.001). No differences were observed in daily food intake between both study groups; consistent with this finding, we did not find major differences in nutrient intake between groups. In the multivariable analyses, the aMED and aHEI were not associated with prediabetes (odds ratio (OR): 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75–1.87; p = 0.460 and OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.83–2.10; p = 0.246, respectively); however, age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05; p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.27–3.22; p = 0.003) and body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05–1.14; p < 0.001) were positively associated with prediabetes. Physical activity was associated with a lower frequency of prediabetes (OR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.31–0.72; p = 0.001). In conclusion, subjects with prediabetes did not show a different dietary pattern compared with a normal glucose tolerance group. However, further research is needed on this issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Article
Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Thyroid Function in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Apulian Survey
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103173 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Much research suggests that Mediterranean eating habits and lifestyle contribute to counteract the risk of chronic diseases while promoting longevity, but little information is available on the effects of the Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) on thyroid function, particularly among overweight/obese subjects. Nevertheless, consistent data [...] Read more.
Much research suggests that Mediterranean eating habits and lifestyle contribute to counteract the risk of chronic diseases while promoting longevity, but little information is available on the effects of the Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) on thyroid function, particularly among overweight/obese subjects. Nevertheless, consistent data reported a slight increase in serum levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a higher rate of conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in obesity. This cross-sectional study was aimed at investigating the relationship between adherence to the Med-Diet and circulating thyroid hormones in a cohort of overweight/obese subjects from Apulia (Southern Italy). Methods: We studied 324 consecutive outpatient subjects (228 women and 96 men, age range 14–72 years) taking no drug therapy and showing normal levels of thyroid hormones, but complicated by overweight and obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2). The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) questionnaire was cross-sectionally administered to assess the adherence to the Med-Diet, and hormonal, metabolic, and routine laboratory parameters were collected. Results: Higher adherence to Med-Diet was found to be inversely related to free T3 (p < 0.01) and T4 (p < 0.01) serum levels. Considering each item in the PREDIMED questionnaire, people consuming at least four spoonfuls of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) per day, as well as those consuming at least two servings of vegetables per day, had lower free T3 levels (p 0.033 and p 0.021, respectively). Furthermore, consuming at least four spoonfuls of EVOO per day was found to be associated to lower free T4 serum concentrations (p 0.011). Multinomial logistic regression models, performed on tertiles of thyroid hormones to further investigate the relationship with Med-Diet, corroborated the significance only for free T4. Conclusion: Increased adherence to the Med-Diet was independently associated to a slightly reduced thyroid function, but still within the reference range for free T3 and T4 serum levels. This first finding in this field opens up a research line on any underlying biological interplay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Ketogenic Diet, Physical Activity, and Hypertension—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082567 - 27 Jul 2021
Viewed by 936
Abstract
Several studies link cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with unhealthy lifestyles (unhealthy dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, and low levels of physical activity). Therefore, the strong need for CVD prevention may be pursued through an improved control of CVD risk factors (impaired lipid and glycemic [...] Read more.
Several studies link cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with unhealthy lifestyles (unhealthy dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, and low levels of physical activity). Therefore, the strong need for CVD prevention may be pursued through an improved control of CVD risk factors (impaired lipid and glycemic profiles, high blood pressure, and obesity), which is achievable through an overall intervention aimed to favor a healthy lifestyle. Focusing on diet, different recommendations emphasize the need to increase or avoid consumption of entire classes of food, with only partly known and only partly foreseeable consequences on the overall level of health. In recent years, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been proposed to be an effective lifestyle intervention for metabolic syndrome, and although the beneficial effects on weight loss and glucose metabolism seems to be well established, the effects of a prolonged KD on the ability to perform different types of exercise and the influence of KD on blood pressure (BP) levels, both in normotensives and in hypertensives, are not so well understood. The objective of this review is to analyze, on the basis of current evidence, the relationship between KD, regular physical activity, and BP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Beneficial Effects of Early Time-Restricted Feeding on Metabolic Diseases: Importance of Aligning Food Habits with the Circadian Clock
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051405 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4050
Abstract
The importance of metabolic health is a major societal concern due to the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and various cardiovascular diseases. The circadian clock is clearly implicated in the development of these metabolic diseases. Indeed, it regulates physiological [...] Read more.
The importance of metabolic health is a major societal concern due to the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and various cardiovascular diseases. The circadian clock is clearly implicated in the development of these metabolic diseases. Indeed, it regulates physiological processes by hormone modulation, thus helping the body to perform them at the ideal time of day. Since the industrial revolution, the actions and rhythms of everyday life have been modified and are characterized by changes in sleep pattern, work schedules, and eating habits. These modifications have in turn lead to night shift, social jetlag, late-night eating, and meal skipping, a group of customs that causes circadian rhythm disruption and leads to an increase in metabolic risks. Intermittent fasting, especially the time-restricted eating, proposes a solution: restraining the feeding window from 6 to 10 h per day to match it with the circadian clock. This approach seems to improve metabolic health markers and could be a therapeutic solution to fight against metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the importance of matching life habits with circadian rhythms for metabolic health and assesses the advantages and limits of the application of time-restricted fasting with the objective of treating and preventing metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Incretin Hormones in Obesity and Related Cardiometabolic Disorders: The Clinical Perspective
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020351 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
The prevalence of obesity continues to grow rapidly worldwide, posing many public health challenges of the 21st century. Obese subjects are at major risk for serious diet-related noncommunicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Understanding the [...] Read more.
The prevalence of obesity continues to grow rapidly worldwide, posing many public health challenges of the 21st century. Obese subjects are at major risk for serious diet-related noncommunicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying obesity pathogenesis is needed for the development of effective treatment strategies. Dysregulation of incretin secretion and actions has been observed in obesity and related metabolic disorders; therefore, incretin-based therapies have been developed to provide new therapeutic options. Incretin mimetics present glucose-lowering properties, together with a reduction of appetite and food intake, resulting in weight loss. In this review, we describe the physiology of two known incretins—glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and their role in obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. We also focus on the available and incoming incretin-based medications that can be used in the treatment of the above-mentioned conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Strategies for Reducing Salt and Sugar Intakes in Individuals at Increased Cardiometabolic Risk
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010279 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the first causes of death worldwide. Reduction in the dietary intake of salt and sugars is important lifestyle advice that is useful for NCD prevention. However, the simple recommendations of reducing salt and sugars by healthcare professionals are often [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the first causes of death worldwide. Reduction in the dietary intake of salt and sugars is important lifestyle advice that is useful for NCD prevention. However, the simple recommendations of reducing salt and sugars by healthcare professionals are often ineffective; innovative strategies are therefore necessary. This review aimed at describing the current knowledge about the strategies to reduce dietary salt and sugar intake, including both strategies for the food industry to reduce the salt or sugar of its products and recommendations for health professionals in a clinical context, such as the replacement with substitutes in foods, the gradual reduction to allow a progressive consumer adaptation towards less intense taste, and the different spatial distribution of tastants within the food matrix with taste intensity enhancement. In addition, the cross-modal interaction between two or more different sensory modalities as an innovative strategy for enhancing sweetness and saltiness perception was described. Finally, the dietary tips for salt and sugar reduction were summarized in order to create a comprehensive guide of dietary advices for healthcare professionals for optimizing the management of patients at increased cardiometabolic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop