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Open AccessArticle

Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Inflammation but Does Not Restore Renal Function and Klotho Expression in an Adenine-Induced CKD Model

Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Botucatu 740, 04023-900 São Paulo, Brazil
Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG), P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
Tropical Medicine & Public Health, Federal University of Goiás (UFG), Rua 235 s/n-University Sector, 74605-050 Goiânia, Brazil
Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1730, ICB IV, Sala 238, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1283;
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health)
Background: Chronic kidney disease and inflammation promote loss of Klotho expression. Given the well-established anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, we aimed to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation in a model of CKD. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received supplementation with an adenine-enriched diet (AD, n = 5) or standard diet (CTL, n = 5) for 10 days. Two other experimental groups were kept under the adenine diet for 10 days. Following adenine withdrawal on the 11th day, the animals returned to a standard diet supplemented with fish oil (Post AD-Fish oil, n = 9) or not (Post AD-CTL, n = 9) for an additional period of 7 days. Results: Adenine mice exhibited significantly higher mean serum urea, creatinine, and renal expression of the pro-inflammatory markers Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in addition to prominent renal fibrosis and reduced renal Klotho gene expression compared to the control. Post AD-Fish oil animals demonstrated a significant reduction of IL-6, C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9), and IL-1β compared to Post AD-CTL animals. However, serum creatinine, renal fibrosis, and Klotho were not significantly different in the fish oil-treated group. Furthermore, renal histomorphological changes such as tubular dilatation and interstitial infiltration persisted despite treatment. Conclusions: Fish oil supplementation reduced renal pro-inflammatory markers but was not able to restore renal function nor Klotho expression in an adenine-induced CKD model. View Full-Text
Keywords: klotho; CKD; fish oil; fibrosis; inflammation klotho; CKD; fish oil; fibrosis; inflammation
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Henao Agudelo, J.S.; Baia, L.C.; Ormanji, M.S.; Santos, A.R.P.; Machado, J.R.; Saraiva Câmara, N.O.; Navis, G.J.; De Borst, M.H.; Heilberg, I.P. Fish Oil Supplementation Reduces Inflammation but Does Not Restore Renal Function and Klotho Expression in an Adenine-Induced CKD Model. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1283.

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