Special Issue "Supplementation with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and Probiotics Improves Immunity"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Prebiotics and Probiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesco Savino
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, Ospedale Infantile Regina Margherita, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Piazza Polonia, 94, 10126 Turin, Italy
Interests: infant nutrition; breastmilk; infant formulas; leptin; ghrelin; infantile colic; gut microbiota; prebiotics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The gut microbiota can influence maturation and function of the immune system in early infancy. The gut mucosal immune system, which consists of lymph nodes, lamina propria, and epithelial cells, constitutes a protective barrier for the integrity of the intestinal tract. The composition of the gut microbiota is under the surveillance of the normal mucosal immune system, and the commensal microbiome regulates the maturation of the mucosal immune system, while the pathogenic microbiome causes immunity dysfunction, resulting in disease development (necrotizing enterocolitis, diarrhea, atopy, infantile colic). Emerging evidence shows that gut microbes and their metabolites open up new doors for the study of human immunity. It has been reported that some bacterial taxa shape T cell differentiation via their physical components (e.g., polysaccharide A) or their metabolic products (e.g., butyrate, short-chain fatty acids). However, the complexity of gut microbe–metabolite–host interactions are under investigation, rapidly being clarified. More recently, it places new therapeutic approaches at the spotlight, such as Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillum supplementation. Nonetheless, their exact mechanisms on immunity still remain not completely known, and future research will focus on finding a specific strain that can act.

This Special Issue, “Supplementation with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and Probiotics Improves Immunity”, welcomes manuscripts detailing human and animal studies focused on the roles of Bifidusbacterium and lactobacillus and the immune system. Experimental papers, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Dr. Francesco Savino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Bifidobacterium
  • Lactobacillus
  • Probiotics
  • Newborn
  • Infants
  • Children
  • Immunity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus reuteri Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Modulates Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082298 - 31 Jul 2020
Abstract
Lactobacillus reuteri, a commensal intestinal bacteria, has various health benefits including the regulation of immunity and intestinal microbiota. We examined whether L. reuteri I5007 could protect mice against colitis in ameliorating inflammation, modulating microbiota, and metabolic composition. In vitro, HT-29 cells were [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus reuteri, a commensal intestinal bacteria, has various health benefits including the regulation of immunity and intestinal microbiota. We examined whether L. reuteri I5007 could protect mice against colitis in ameliorating inflammation, modulating microbiota, and metabolic composition. In vitro, HT-29 cells were cultured with L. reuteri I5007 or lipopolysaccharide treatment under three different conditions, i.e., pre-, co- (simultaneous), and posttreatment. Pretreatment with L. reuteri I5007 effectively relieves inflammation in HT-29 cells challenged with lipopolysaccharide. In vivo, mice were given L. reuteri I5007 by gavage throughout the study, starting one week prior to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment for one week followed by two days without DSS. L. reuteri I5007 improved DSS-induced colitis, which was confirmed by reduced weight loss, colon length shortening, and histopathological damage, restored the mucus layer, as well as reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines levels. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences and metabolome demonstrates that L. reuteri I5007 significantly alters colonic microbiota and metabolic structural and functional composition. Overall, the results demonstrate that L. reuteri I5007 pretreatment could effectively alleviate intestinal inflammation by regulating immune responses and altering the composition of gut microbiota structure and function, as well as improving metabolic disorders in mice with colitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Heat-Killed Pediococcus acidilactici K15 for Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections among Preschool Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1989; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071989 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
Although some probiotic bacteria have been reported to prevent infections in children, there are few well-designed double-blind studies. Here we evaluated the effects of a probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici K15, on viral respiratory tract infections in preschool children. [...] Read more.
Although some probiotic bacteria have been reported to prevent infections in children, there are few well-designed double-blind studies. Here we evaluated the effects of a probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pediococcus acidilactici K15, on viral respiratory tract infections in preschool children. A four-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 172 healthy children aged 3 to 6 years. Subjects were administered dextrin alone or dextrin including heat-killed K15 (5 × 1010 bacteria). The number of febrile days was the primary outcome. The number of absent days from preschools and the influenza incidence were secondary outcomes. Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations in saliva were measured as an exploratory outcome. The primary and secondary outcomes were not significantly different between both groups. Analyses in children with little intake of fermented foods including LAB showed that the duration of a fever significantly decreased by K15 intake. The salivary sIgA level in the K15 group was maintained significantly higher than it was in the placebo group. The effects of K15 on preventing viral respiratory tract infections were not observed without the restriction of fermented foods intake. However, K15 supported anti-infectious immune systems in children who took less fermented foods and the maintenance of salivary sIgA levels in all subjects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Daily Probiotics Supplementation on Anxiety Induced Physiological Parameters among Competitive Football Players
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071920 - 29 Jun 2020
Abstract
Competitive football players who undergo strenuous training and frequent competitions are more vulnerable to psychological disorders. Probiotics are capable of reducing these psychological disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effect of daily probiotics supplementation on anxiety induced physiological parameters among competitive [...] Read more.
Competitive football players who undergo strenuous training and frequent competitions are more vulnerable to psychological disorders. Probiotics are capable of reducing these psychological disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effect of daily probiotics supplementation on anxiety induced physiological parameters among competitive football players. The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 20 male footballers who received either probiotics (Lactobacillus Casei Shirota strain 3 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU) or a placebo drink over eight weeks. Portable biofeedback devices were used to measure the electroencephalography, heart rate, and electrodermal responses along with cognitive tests at the baseline, week 4, and week 8. Data were statistically analyzed using mixed factorial ANOVA and results revealed that there is no significant difference between the probiotic and placebo groups for heart rate (61.90 bpm ± 5.84 vs. 67.67 bpm ± 8.42, p = 0.09) and electrodermal responses (0.27 µS ± 0.19 vs. 0.41 µS ± 0.12, p = 0.07) after eight weeks. Similarly, brain waves showed no significant changes during the study period except for the theta wave and delta wave at week 4 (p < 0.05). The cognitive test reaction time (digit vigilance test) showed significant improvement in the probiotic group compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that daily probiotics supplementation may have the potential to modulate the brain waves namely, theta (relaxation) and delta (attention) for better training, brain function, and psychological improvement to exercise. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism of current findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacilli Supplemented with Larch Arabinogalactan and Colostrum Stimulates an Immune Response towards Peripheral NK Activation and Gut Tolerance
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061706 - 07 Jun 2020
Abstract
Probiotics possibly affect local and systemic immune reactions and maintain the intestinal immune homeostasis in healthy individuals and patients with diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this single-center, blinded trial, we enrolled 40 individuals (20 patients with IBS and 20 healthy [...] Read more.
Probiotics possibly affect local and systemic immune reactions and maintain the intestinal immune homeostasis in healthy individuals and patients with diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this single-center, blinded trial, we enrolled 40 individuals (20 patients with IBS and 20 healthy individuals) whose blood and fecal samples were collected before and after a 21-day administration of a product comprising Lactobacillus spp., larch arabinogalactan, and colostrum. The percentage of HLA-DR+ natural killer (NK) cells was higher in healthy individuals (p = 0.03) than in patients with IBS after product supplementation. In the fecal samples of patients with IBS, we observed a decline in IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and secretory IgA levels and, simultaneously, an increase in IL-10 and IL-17A levels after supplementation, although non-significant, whereas, in healthy individuals, we observed a significant decline in IL-6 and IFN-γ levels after supplementation (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, we observed a clinical improvement of symptoms in 65–75% of patients with IBS and the complete resolution of the initial symptoms in five of the 20 patients. We also observed a possible prophylactic effect by the inducing system antiviral impact accompanied by a trend for local immune tolerance in the gut in healthy individuals, where it is the desirable state. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) for the Management of Infantile Colic: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061693 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 together with the maternal diet avoidance of cow’s milk in treating infantile colic. Methods: Forty-five colicky breastfed infants were consecutively randomized to receive L. rhamnosus for 28 [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 together with the maternal diet avoidance of cow’s milk in treating infantile colic. Methods: Forty-five colicky breastfed infants were consecutively randomized to receive L. rhamnosus for 28 days at a dosage of 5 × 109 cfu per day or placebo. Faecal samples were collected from each subject before starting supplementation and at the end of the study period and were immediately analysed. Faecal calprotectin was detected via a quantitative assay. The total bacterial load and selected bacterial species were evaluated using real-time TaqMan PCR. Results: After supplementation for 28 days with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, median full-force daily crying was reduced (104 versus 242 min, p < 0.001) and the values of faecal calprotectin decreased significantly (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the probiotic increased the abundance of Lactobacillus (p = 0.048) and total bacteria (p = 0.040); all these effects were not observed in the placebo group. Conclusion: Infants treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 for 28 days, in association with the elimination of cow’s milk from the maternal diet, presented some interesting features related to the effect of this probiotic treatment: reductions in crying time and faecal calprotectin, with increased total bacteria and Lactobacillus. To validate these results, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on a larger cohort is required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probiotic NVP-1703 Alleviates Allergic Rhinitis by Inducing IL-10 Expression: A Four-week Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051427 - 15 May 2020
Abstract
Although several recent studies reported that probiotics might be beneficial for allergic rhinitis (AR), the effect of probiotics on AR is not consistent and have not been reproduced between studies. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of probiotic NVP-1703, a mixture [...] Read more.
Although several recent studies reported that probiotics might be beneficial for allergic rhinitis (AR), the effect of probiotics on AR is not consistent and have not been reproduced between studies. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of probiotic NVP-1703, a mixture of Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus plantarum, in subjects with perennial AR. Adult subjects with perennial AR received either NVP-1703 (n = 47) or placebo (n = 48) for four weeks. Total nasal symptom scores (TNSS), rhinitis control assessment test (RCAT), blood eosinophil count, allergen-specific IgE, and immunological parameters in serum and urine were compared at baseline and after four weeks. TNSS changes from baseline at weeks 1, 3, and 4 were significant between the NVP-1703 and placebo groups (p = 0.033, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively). RCAT score showed significant differences between the NVP-1703 and placebo groups (p = 0.049) at week 4. Dermatophagoides farinae-specific IgE levels and serum IL-10 levels were significantly different between the NVP-1703 and placebo groups (p = 0.033 and p = 0.047, respectively). IL-10/IL-4 and IL-10/IL-13 ratios were different between the NVP-1703 and placebo groups at week 4 (p = 0.046 and 0.018, respectively). NVP-1703 treatment reduced urinary prostaglandin F and leukotriene E4 levels (p > 0.05). Therefore, NVP-1703 can be treatment option for perennial AR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus Acidophilus/Bifidobacterium Infantis Probiotics Are Beneficial to Extremely Low Gestational Age Infants Fed Human Milk
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030850 - 22 Mar 2020
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the nutrition-related effects of prophylactic Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium infantis probiotics on the outcomes of preterm infants <29 weeks of gestation that receive human milk and/or formula nutrition. We hypothesize that human-milk-fed infants benefit from probiotics in terms of sepsis prevention [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate the nutrition-related effects of prophylactic Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium infantis probiotics on the outcomes of preterm infants <29 weeks of gestation that receive human milk and/or formula nutrition. We hypothesize that human-milk-fed infants benefit from probiotics in terms of sepsis prevention and growth. Methods: We performed an observational study of the German Neonatal Network (GNN) over a period of six years, between 1 January, 2013 and 31 December, 2018. Prophylactic probiotic use of L. acidophilus/B. infantis was evaluated in preterm infants <29 weeks of gestation (n = 7516) in subgroups stratified to feeding type: (I) Exclusively human milk (HM) of own mother and/or donors (HM group, n = 1568), (II) HM of own mother and/or donor and formula (Mix group, n = 5221), and (III) exclusive exposure to formula (F group, n = 727). The effect of probiotics on general outcomes and growth was tested in univariate models and adjusted in linear/logistic regression models. Results: 5954 (76.5%) infants received L. acidophilus/B. infantis prophylactically for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Probiotic use was associated with improved growth measures in the HM group (e.g., weight gain velocity in g/day: effect size B = 0.224; 95% CI: 2.82–4.35; p < 0.001) but not in the F group (effect size B = −0.06; 95% CI: −3.05–0.28; p = 0.103). The HM group had the lowest incidence of clinical sepsis (34.0%) as compared to the Mix group (35.5%) and the F group (40.0%). Only in the Mix group, probiotic supplementation proved to be protective against clinical sepsis (OR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.59–0.79; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our observational data indicate that the exposure to L. acidophilus/B. infantis probiotics may promote growth in exclusively HM-fed infants as compared to formula-fed infants. To exert a sepsis-preventive effect, probiotics seem to require human milk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071678 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in [...] Read more.
Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. Methods. Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, n = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, n = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. Results. Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. Conclusion. For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Effectiveness of Probiotics in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)—A Critical Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071973 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which affects millions of people worldwide, includes two separate diseases: Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the background (chronic inflammatory state) and some of the symptoms of CD and UC are similar, both diseases differ from each [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which affects millions of people worldwide, includes two separate diseases: Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the background (chronic inflammatory state) and some of the symptoms of CD and UC are similar, both diseases differ from each other. It is becoming clear that a combination of many factors, in particular genetic background, host immune response and microbial reduced diversity status are associated with IBD. One potential strategy to prevent/treat IBD is gut modulation by probiotics. Over the last twenty years, many publications have focused on the role of probiotics in the course of IBD. The review discusses the utility of different strains of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp., in all factors potentially involved in the etiology of IBD. The probiotic modulatory properties among different study models (cell lines, animal models of colitis, clinical study) are discussed and probiotic usefulness is assessed in relation to the treatment, prevention, and remission of diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Can Probiotics and Diet Promote Beneficial Immune Modulation and Purine Control in Coronavirus Infection?
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061737 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection. In this context, alternatives related to nutritional therapy might help to control the infection. This narrative review proposes the importance and role of probiotics and diet as adjunct alternatives among the therapies available for the treatment of this new coronavirus. This review discusses the relationship between intestinal purine metabolism and the use of Lactobacillus gasseri and low-purine diets, particularly in individuals with hyperuricemia, as adjuvant nutritional therapies to improve the immune system and weaken viral replication, assisting in the treatment of COVID-19. These might be promising alternatives, in addition to many others that involve adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds from food. Full article
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