Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Oral l-Arginine and l-Citrulline Supplementation on Blood Pressure
Previous Article in Journal
Linseed Components Are More Effective Than Whole Linseed in Reversing Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
Open AccessArticle

Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP 04039-032, Brazil
2
Institute of Physical Activity Science and Sport, Cruzeiro of Sul University, São Paulo-SP 01506-000, Brazil
3
Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP 04023-062, Brazil
4
Department of Morphology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP 04023-900, Brazil
5
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP 04024-002, Brazil
6
Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University (UNIP), São Paulo-SP 04043-200, Brazil
7
Children´s Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP 05403-000, Brazil
8
Post-graduation Program in Bioengineering and in Biomedical Engineering, Universidade Brasil, São Paulo-SP 08230-030, Brazil
9
Post-graduation Program in Sciences of Human Movement and Rehabilitation, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos-SP 11060-001, Brazil
10
Brazilian Institute of Teaching and Research in Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology (IBEPIPE), São José Dos Campos-SP 12245-520, Brazil
11
School of Medicine, Anhembi Morumbi University, São José dos Campos-SP 12230-002, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071678
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
  |  
PDF [1964 KB, uploaded 25 July 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Background. Although Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) can benefit the immune status, the effects of LcS in the immune/inflammatory responses of marathon runners has never been evaluated. Therefore, here we evaluated the effect of daily ingestion of fermented milk containing or not LcS in the systemic and upper airway immune/inflammatory responses before and after a marathon. Methods. Forty-two male marathon runners ingested a fermented milk containing 40 billion of LcS/day (LcS group, n = 20) or placebo (unfermented milk, n = 22) during 30 days pre-marathon. Immune/inflammatory parameters in nasal mucosa and serum, as well as concentrations of secretory IgA (SIgA) and antimicrobial peptides in saliva, were evaluated before and after fermented milk ingestion, immediately, 72 h, and 14 d post-marathon. Results. Higher proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal mucosa, and also lower salivary levels of SIgA and antimicrobial peptides, were found immediately post-marathon in the placebo group compared to other time points and to LcS group. In opposite, higher anti-inflammatory levels and reduced neutrophil infiltration on nasal mucosa were found in the LcS group compared to other time points and to the placebo group. Conclusion. For the first time, it is shown that LcS is able to modulate the systemic and airways immune responses post-marathon. View Full-Text
Keywords: probiotics; cytokines; secretory immunoglobulin A; antimicrobial peptides; neutrophil infiltration probiotics; cytokines; secretory immunoglobulin A; antimicrobial peptides; neutrophil infiltration
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vaisberg, M.; Paixão, V.; Almeida, E.B.; Santos, J.M.B.; Foster, R.; Rossi, M.; Pithon-Curi, T.C.; Gorjão, R.; Momesso, C.M.; Andrade, M.S.; Araujo, J.R.; Garcia, M.C.; Cohen, M.; Perez, E.C.; Santos-Dias, A.; Vieira, R.P.; Bachi, A.L.L. Daily Intake of Fermented Milk Containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) Modulates Systemic and Upper Airways Immune/Inflammatory Responses in Marathon Runners. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1678.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top