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Open AccessArticle

Is Abdominal Fat Distribution Associated with Chronotype in Adults Independently of Lifestyle Factors?

1
International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Via Sandro Botticelli 21, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via Giuseppe Colombo 71, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
5
IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Obesity Unit and Laboratory of Nutrition and Obesity Research, Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 20145 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030592
Received: 9 February 2020 / Revised: 20 February 2020 / Accepted: 21 February 2020 / Published: 25 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Abdominal Obesity)
Both abdominal obesity and its visceral component are independently associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Among the non-modifiable and modifiable determinants, lifestyle plays a central role, while chronotype is an emerging factor. Evening type (E-Type), more active and efficient in the last part of the day, has been associated with a health-impairing style, resulting in a higher risk of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases than morning type (M-Type). However, no study has examined the contribution of chronotype to abdominal fat distribution, even considering adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 416 adults (69.5% females, 50 ± 13 years). Waist circumference (WC), visceral fat (VAT) using ultrasonography, chronotype through the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ), and adherence to MD were studied. Our results showed no differences in WC and VAT between chronotypes. However, adherence to MD resulted significantly lower in the E-Types compared to M-Types. WC decreased with increasing Mediterranean score and rMEQ score, and VAT decreased with increasing rMEQ score, indicating that E-Types have +2 cm of WC and +0.5 cm of VAT compared to M-Types. In conclusion, these results showed that chronotype is independently associated with abdominal obesity and visceral fat, underlining the potential implications of the individual circadian typology on abdominal obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronotype; circadian typology; chrononutrition; abdominal obesity; visceral fat; abdominal fat distribution; Mediterranean diet chronotype; circadian typology; chrononutrition; abdominal obesity; visceral fat; abdominal fat distribution; Mediterranean diet
MDPI and ACS Style

De Amicis, R.; Galasso, L.; Leone, A.; Vignati, L.; De Carlo, G.; Foppiani, A.; Montaruli, A.; Roveda, E.; Cè, E.; Esposito, F.; Vanzulli, A.; Battezzati, A.; Bertoli, S. Is Abdominal Fat Distribution Associated with Chronotype in Adults Independently of Lifestyle Factors? Nutrients 2020, 12, 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030592

AMA Style

De Amicis R, Galasso L, Leone A, Vignati L, De Carlo G, Foppiani A, Montaruli A, Roveda E, Cè E, Esposito F, Vanzulli A, Battezzati A, Bertoli S. Is Abdominal Fat Distribution Associated with Chronotype in Adults Independently of Lifestyle Factors? Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):592. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030592

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Amicis, Ramona; Galasso, Letizia; Leone, Alessandro; Vignati, Laila; De Carlo, Giulia; Foppiani, Andrea; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Cè, Emiliano; Esposito, Fabio; Vanzulli, Angelo; Battezzati, Alberto; Bertoli, Simona. 2020. "Is Abdominal Fat Distribution Associated with Chronotype in Adults Independently of Lifestyle Factors?" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 592. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030592

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