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Vitamin E Supplementation and Mitochondria in Experimental and Functional Hyperthyroidism: A Mini-Review

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Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, via Acton n. 38, I-0133 Napoli, Italy
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Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122900
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 1 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E: Uses, Benefits, Emerging Aspects, and RDA)
Mitochondria are both the main sites of production and the main target of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with harmful consequences for the cells and the whole organism, resulting in metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dementia, and aging. To protect themselves from ROS, mitochondria are equipped with an efficient antioxidant system, which includes low-molecular-mass molecules and enzymes able to scavenge ROS or repair the oxidative damage. In the mitochondrial membranes, a major role is played by the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E, which reacts with the peroxyl radicals faster than the molecules of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in doing so, protects membranes from excessive oxidative damage. In the present review, we summarize the available data concerning the capacity of vitamin E supplementation to protect mitochondria from oxidative damage in hyperthyroidism, a condition that leads to increased mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative damage. Vitamin E supplementation to hyperthyroid animals limits the thyroid hormone-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS and oxidative damage. Moreover, it prevents the reduction of the high functionality components of the mitochondrial population induced by hyperthyroidism, thus preserving cell function. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondria; vitamin E; hyperthyroidism; cold exposure mitochondria; vitamin E; hyperthyroidism; cold exposure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Napolitano, G.; Fasciolo, G.; Di Meo, S.; Venditti, P. Vitamin E Supplementation and Mitochondria in Experimental and Functional Hyperthyroidism: A Mini-Review. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2900.

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