Special Issue "Vitamin D and Sport Performance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Beat Knechtle
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
Tel. 0041 71 534 01 31; Fax: + 41 (0) 71 226 82 72
Interests: endurance; ultra-endurance; swimming; cycling; running; master athlete; sport nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamin D seems to be very important for general health but also for athletic performance.

Insufficiency in Vitamin D is a serious problem in general internal medicine. Different disorders have been reported to be associated with Vitamin D deficiency. Certain populations such as infants, children, premenopausal women, diverse racial or ethnic groups, and elderly people are at an increased risk for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other problems.

In athletes, certain populations such as women might be at a higher risk for Vitamin D deficiency. Little is known about whether supplementation in Vitamin D in athletes with deficiency in Vitamin D improves performance.

One of the purposes of this Special Issue "Vitamin D and Sport Performance" is to gain more information about the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in different sport disciplines (e.g., indoor sports) and populations (e.g., master athletes). Another purpose is to see whether the supplementation of Vitamin D in certain populations of athletes with a deficiency can improve athletic performance in different sports disciplines.

Prof. Dr. Beat Knechtle

Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Supplement
  • Endurance and strength
  • Deficiency
  • Athlete
  • Performance

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency in Young Male Russian Soccer Players in Winter
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102405 - 08 Oct 2019
Abstract
Vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in adult soccer players and can exceed 80% even in regions with high insolation; however, the treatment of this condition is often complicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in adult soccer players and can exceed 80% even in regions with high insolation; however, the treatment of this condition is often complicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in youth Russian soccer players and the efficacy of its treatment. Participants were 131 young male football players (age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Low vitamin D levels (below 30 ng/mL) were observed in 42.8% of the analyzed participants. These athletes were split in two groups composed of persons with vitamin D deficiency (serum vitamin D below 21 ng/mL) and insufficiency (serum vitamin D in range of 21–29 ng/mL). A dietary supplement of 5000 IU cholecalciferol per day was administered for two months. After the treatment, an average 92% increase in vitamin D concentration was observed (before treatment—19.7 ± 5.4 ng/mL, after treatment—34.7 ± 8.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001) and 74% of the post-treatment values were within the reference range (30–60 ng/mL). Serum concentration of vitamin D increased by 200% ± 98% (p < 0.001) during the first month of treatment with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency being successfully treated in 83% of the football players. In summary, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was high in young Russian soccer players. Furthermore, it was indicated that the daily usage of cholecalciferol in a dose 5000 IU was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for vitamin D insufficiency. No linear dependency between the duration of treatment and increase in vitamin 25(OH)D concentration was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
The Dependence of Running Speed and Muscle Strength on the Serum Concentration of Vitamin D in Young Male Professional Football Players Residing in the Russian Federation
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091960 - 21 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among athletes, and it can negatively affect physical performance. At the same time, most of the available data were obtained from untrained individuals of various ages, and published studies performed in athletes led to contradictory conclusions. [...] Read more.
Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among athletes, and it can negatively affect physical performance. At the same time, most of the available data were obtained from untrained individuals of various ages, and published studies performed in athletes led to contradictory conclusions. Methods: This cohort prospective study examined the serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH)D) and its association with running speed and muscle power in 131 young football players (mean age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Results: 25(OH)D levels were below reference in 42.8% (serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL) and above reference in 30.5% of the participants (serum 25(OH)D 61–130 ng/mL). A comparison of the results of 5, 15, and 30 m sprint tests and the standing long jump test found no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Athletes from the 25(OH)D-insufficient group were treated with 5000 IU cholecalciferol supplement daily for 60 days. After the treatment, the 25(OH)D concentration increased by 79.2% and was within reference in 84% of the treated athletes (serum 25(OH)D 30–60 ng/mL). Testing was repeated after the end of treatment, and a statistically significant increase in the results of the 5, 15, and 30 m sprint tests was observed (Cohen’s d was 0.46, 0.33, and 0.34, respectively), while the results of the standing long jump test remained unchanged. Body height, body weight, and lean body mass of the football players also increased. Conclusions: These findings indicate that there is likely no correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D, muscle power, and running speed in young professional football players, and the changes observed post-treatment might have been caused by changes in the anthropometric parameters. During the study, all the anthropometric parameters changed, but the amount of lean body mass only correlated with the results of the 5 m sprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessCommunication
Vitamin D, Skeletal Muscle Function and Athletic Performance in Athletes—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081800 - 04 Aug 2019
Abstract
The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) exerts its biological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are found in most human extraskeletal cells, including skeletal muscles. Vitamin D deficiency may cause deficits in strength, and lead to fatty degeneration [...] Read more.
The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) exerts its biological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are found in most human extraskeletal cells, including skeletal muscles. Vitamin D deficiency may cause deficits in strength, and lead to fatty degeneration of type II muscle fibers, which has been found to negatively correlate with physical performance. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve vitamin D status and can positively affect skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study is to summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D, skeletal muscle function and physical performance in athletes. Additionally, we will discuss the effect of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance in players. Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the underlying mechanisms of calcitriol action in the human skeletal muscle tissue, and to understand how these actions impact the athletic performance in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Supplementation and Physical Activity of Young Soccer Players during High-Intensity Training
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020349 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of young soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their motion activity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one, which was supplemented with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of young soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their motion activity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one, which was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20), and the placebo group (PG, n = 16), which was not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training, described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). The data of the vitamin D status, time motion parameters and heart rate were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in 25(OH)D concentration (119%) was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. Based on the obtained results, it was found that physical activity indicators in the players were significantly improved during small-sided games at the last stage of the experiment. However, taking into account the effect of supplementation with vitamin D, there were no statistically significant differences between the placebo and the supplemented groups; thus, the effect size of the conducted experiment was trivial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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