Special Issue "Vitamin D and Sport Performance"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Vitamin D seems to be very important for general health but also for athletic performance.

Insufficiency in Vitamin D is a serious problem in general internal medicine. Different disorders have been reported to be associated with Vitamin D deficiency. Certain populations such as infants, children, premenopausal women, diverse racial or ethnic groups, and elderly people are at an increased risk for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other problems.

In athletes, certain populations such as women might be at a higher risk for Vitamin D deficiency. Little is known about whether supplementation in Vitamin D in athletes with deficiency in Vitamin D improves performance.

One of the purposes of this Special Issue "Vitamin D and Sport Performance" is to gain more information about the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in different sport disciplines (e.g., indoor sports) and populations (e.g., master athletes). Another purpose is to see whether the supplementation of Vitamin D in certain populations of athletes with a deficiency can improve athletic performance in different sports disciplines.

Prof. Dr. Beat Knechtle

Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Supplement
  • Endurance and strength
  • Deficiency
  • Athlete
  • Performance

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Vitamin D and Sport Performance
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030841 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Vitamin D seems to be very important for general health but also for athletic performance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Acute Responses to Low and High Intensity Exercise in Type 1 Diabetic Adolescents in Relation to Their Level of Serum 25(OH)D
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020454 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in glycaemic reaction in response to various physical activities in 20 young boys (14.4 ± 1.6 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and with either vitamin D deficiency or with suboptimal [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in glycaemic reaction in response to various physical activities in 20 young boys (14.4 ± 1.6 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and with either vitamin D deficiency or with suboptimal levels of vitamin D. Participants were divided into two groups (deficiency group—DG, n = 10; suboptimal group—SG, n = 10) according to their vitamin D levels. All patients performed aerobic and mixed (aerobic-anaerobic) physical efforts. During the exercise, the respiratory responses and glucose levels were monitored. Biochemical blood analyses were performed before each physical effort. The oxygen consumption was not significantly lower in SG during both aerobic and mixed effort (4.0% and 5.6%, respectively). The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was higher by 6.1% and the total daily dose of insulin (DDI) was higher by 18.4% in the DG. The differences were not statistically significant. Patients with lower vitamin D levels demonstrated an insignificantly higher glycaemic variability during days with both aerobic and mixed exercises. An appropriate vitamin D concentration in T1DM patients’ blood may constitute a prophylactic factor for hyperglycaemia during anaerobic training and hypoglycaemia during aerobic training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessCommunication
Impact of Vitamin D on Physical Efficiency and Exercise Performance—A Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112826 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency amongst athletes and the general population seems to be a prominent problem. The most recognized role of vitamin D is its regulation of calcium homeostasis; there is a strong relationship between vitamin D and bone health. Moreover, its concentrations are [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency amongst athletes and the general population seems to be a prominent problem. The most recognized role of vitamin D is its regulation of calcium homeostasis; there is a strong relationship between vitamin D and bone health. Moreover, its concentrations are associated with muscle function and immune response in both the general and athletic populations. Vitamin D level is strongly connected with the presence of VDRs (vitamin D receptors) in most human extraskeletal cells. Expression of multiple myogenic transcription factors enhancing muscle cell proliferation and differentiation is caused by an exposure of skeletal muscles to vitamin D. The aim of this review is to summarize current understanding of the significance of vitamin D on exercise performance and physical efficiency, as well to analyze the impact of vitamin D on multiple potential mechanisms. More high-quality research studies, considering free 25(OH)D as a better marker of vitamin D status, the baseline level of 25(OH)D and multiple pathways of vitamin D acting and usage in athletes are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength in Professional Volleyball Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112768 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the vitamin D status of professional volleyball athletes and to determine its correlation with shoulder muscle strength. We included 52 healthy male professional volleyball players (23.2 ± 4.5 years), who were categorized by vitamin D status (<20 ng/mL: [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the vitamin D status of professional volleyball athletes and to determine its correlation with shoulder muscle strength. We included 52 healthy male professional volleyball players (23.2 ± 4.5 years), who were categorized by vitamin D status (<20 ng/mL: deficiency, 20–30 ng/mL: insufficiency, and >30 ng/mL: sufficiency). We examined the strength of the internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles of the shoulder by using an isokinetic dynamometer. Fourteen players (26.9%) had vitamin D deficiency, 24 players (46.2%) were vitamin D-insufficient, and 14 players (26.9%) were vitamin D-sufficient. There was no significant correlation between vitamin D level and shoulder muscle strength at 60°/s (IR, r = 0.159, p = 0.26; ER, r = 0.245, p = 0.08) and at 180°/s (IR, r = −0.093, p = 0.51; ER, r = −0.037, p = 0.79). Moreover, the isokinetic shoulder strengths were not significantly different across the three groups in all settings. In conclusion, vitamin D insufficiency was common in elite volleyball players. Though not being associated with isokinetic muscle weakness, vitamin D levels should be regularly monitored, and vitamin D should be supplied to young elite athletes, considering its importance for musculoskeletal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Vitamin D Specific Questionnaire to Determine Vitamin D Status in Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112732 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The study objective was to validate a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire (FFLQ) to assess vitamin D intake and lifestyle factors affecting status. Methods: Data collected previously during the fall (n = 86), winter (n = 49), and spring (n [...] Read more.
The study objective was to validate a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire (FFLQ) to assess vitamin D intake and lifestyle factors affecting status. Methods: Data collected previously during the fall (n = 86), winter (n = 49), and spring (n = 67) in collegiate-athletes (Study 1) and in active adults (n = 123) (Study 2) were utilized. Study 1: Vitamin D intake and ultraviolet B exposure were estimated using the FFLQ and compared to serum 25(OH)D concentrations via simple correlation and linear regression modeling. Study 2: Vitamin D intake from food was estimated using FFLQ and compared to vitamin D intake reported in 7-Day food diaries via paired t-test and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Study 1: Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with vitamin D intake from food, food plus supplements, or sun exposure, but was associated with tanning bed use (r = 0.39) in spring, supplement use in fall (r = 0.28), and BMI (body mass index) (r = −0.32 to −0.47) across all seasons. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were explained by BMI, tanning bed use, and sun exposure in fall, (R = 0.42), BMI in winter (R = 0.32), and BMI and tanning bed use in spring (R = 0.52). Study 2: Estimated Vitamin D intake from food was 186.4 ± 125.7 via FFLQ and 148.5 ± 228.2 IU/day via food diary. There was no association between intake estimated by the two methodologies (r = 0.12, p < 0.05). Conclusions: FFLQ-estimated vitamin D intake was not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration or food-record-estimated vitamin D intake. Results highlight the difficulty of designing/utilizing intake methodologies for vitamin D, as its status is influenced by body size and both endogenous and exogenous (dietary) sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency in Young Male Russian Soccer Players in Winter
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102405 - 08 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in adult soccer players and can exceed 80% even in regions with high insolation; however, the treatment of this condition is often complicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in adult soccer players and can exceed 80% even in regions with high insolation; however, the treatment of this condition is often complicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in youth Russian soccer players and the efficacy of its treatment. Participants were 131 young male football players (age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Low vitamin D levels (below 30 ng/mL) were observed in 42.8% of the analyzed participants. These athletes were split in two groups composed of persons with vitamin D deficiency (serum vitamin D below 21 ng/mL) and insufficiency (serum vitamin D in range of 21–29 ng/mL). A dietary supplement of 5000 IU cholecalciferol per day was administered for two months. After the treatment, an average 92% increase in vitamin D concentration was observed (before treatment—19.7 ± 5.4 ng/mL, after treatment—34.7 ± 8.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001) and 74% of the post-treatment values were within the reference range (30–60 ng/mL). Serum concentration of vitamin D increased by 200% ± 98% (p < 0.001) during the first month of treatment with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency being successfully treated in 83% of the football players. In summary, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was high in young Russian soccer players. Furthermore, it was indicated that the daily usage of cholecalciferol in a dose 5000 IU was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for vitamin D insufficiency. No linear dependency between the duration of treatment and increase in vitamin 25(OH)D concentration was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
The Dependence of Running Speed and Muscle Strength on the Serum Concentration of Vitamin D in Young Male Professional Football Players Residing in the Russian Federation
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091960 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among athletes, and it can negatively affect physical performance. At the same time, most of the available data were obtained from untrained individuals of various ages, and published studies performed in athletes led to contradictory conclusions. [...] Read more.
Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among athletes, and it can negatively affect physical performance. At the same time, most of the available data were obtained from untrained individuals of various ages, and published studies performed in athletes led to contradictory conclusions. Methods: This cohort prospective study examined the serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH)D) and its association with running speed and muscle power in 131 young football players (mean age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Results: 25(OH)D levels were below reference in 42.8% (serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL) and above reference in 30.5% of the participants (serum 25(OH)D 61–130 ng/mL). A comparison of the results of 5, 15, and 30 m sprint tests and the standing long jump test found no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Athletes from the 25(OH)D-insufficient group were treated with 5000 IU cholecalciferol supplement daily for 60 days. After the treatment, the 25(OH)D concentration increased by 79.2% and was within reference in 84% of the treated athletes (serum 25(OH)D 30–60 ng/mL). Testing was repeated after the end of treatment, and a statistically significant increase in the results of the 5, 15, and 30 m sprint tests was observed (Cohen’s d was 0.46, 0.33, and 0.34, respectively), while the results of the standing long jump test remained unchanged. Body height, body weight, and lean body mass of the football players also increased. Conclusions: These findings indicate that there is likely no correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D, muscle power, and running speed in young professional football players, and the changes observed post-treatment might have been caused by changes in the anthropometric parameters. During the study, all the anthropometric parameters changed, but the amount of lean body mass only correlated with the results of the 5 m sprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessCommunication
Vitamin D, Skeletal Muscle Function and Athletic Performance in Athletes—A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081800 - 04 Aug 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4418
Abstract
The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) exerts its biological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are found in most human extraskeletal cells, including skeletal muscles. Vitamin D deficiency may cause deficits in strength, and lead to fatty degeneration [...] Read more.
The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) exerts its biological effects by binding to nuclear vitamin D receptors (VDRs), which are found in most human extraskeletal cells, including skeletal muscles. Vitamin D deficiency may cause deficits in strength, and lead to fatty degeneration of type II muscle fibers, which has been found to negatively correlate with physical performance. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve vitamin D status and can positively affect skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study is to summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D, skeletal muscle function and physical performance in athletes. Additionally, we will discuss the effect of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance in players. Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the underlying mechanisms of calcitriol action in the human skeletal muscle tissue, and to understand how these actions impact the athletic performance in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Supplementation and Physical Activity of Young Soccer Players during High-Intensity Training
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020349 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2690
Abstract
The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of young soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their motion activity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one, which was supplemented with [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of young soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their motion activity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one, which was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20), and the placebo group (PG, n = 16), which was not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training, described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). The data of the vitamin D status, time motion parameters and heart rate were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in 25(OH)D concentration (119%) was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. Based on the obtained results, it was found that physical activity indicators in the players were significantly improved during small-sided games at the last stage of the experiment. However, taking into account the effect of supplementation with vitamin D, there were no statistically significant differences between the placebo and the supplemented groups; thus, the effect size of the conducted experiment was trivial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
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