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Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength in Professional Volleyball Athletes

by Do Kyung Kim 1, Geon Park 1, Liang-Tseng Kuo 2,3,*,† and Won Hah Park 1,*,†
1
Department of Sports Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03063, Korea
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi 613, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112768
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 11 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Sport Performance)
This study aimed to examine the vitamin D status of professional volleyball athletes and to determine its correlation with shoulder muscle strength. We included 52 healthy male professional volleyball players (23.2 ± 4.5 years), who were categorized by vitamin D status (<20 ng/mL: deficiency, 20–30 ng/mL: insufficiency, and >30 ng/mL: sufficiency). We examined the strength of the internal rotator (IR) and external rotator (ER) muscles of the shoulder by using an isokinetic dynamometer. Fourteen players (26.9%) had vitamin D deficiency, 24 players (46.2%) were vitamin D-insufficient, and 14 players (26.9%) were vitamin D-sufficient. There was no significant correlation between vitamin D level and shoulder muscle strength at 60°/s (IR, r = 0.159, p = 0.26; ER, r = 0.245, p = 0.08) and at 180°/s (IR, r = −0.093, p = 0.51; ER, r = −0.037, p = 0.79). Moreover, the isokinetic shoulder strengths were not significantly different across the three groups in all settings. In conclusion, vitamin D insufficiency was common in elite volleyball players. Though not being associated with isokinetic muscle weakness, vitamin D levels should be regularly monitored, and vitamin D should be supplied to young elite athletes, considering its importance for musculoskeletal health. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; muscle strength; volleyball; athletes; shoulder vitamin D; muscle strength; volleyball; athletes; shoulder
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Kim, D.K.; Park, G.; Kuo, L.-T.; Park, W.H. The Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength in Professional Volleyball Athletes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2768.

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