Special Issue "Enhancing Satiety to Reduce Overconsumption: Behavioural Interventions and Modifications to Foods"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Elanor Hinton
Website
Guest Editor
NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Unit, Nutrition Theme, University of Bristol, Education and Learning Centre, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE
Interests: satiety responsiveness; appetite; obesity; fMRI; eating behaviour
Dr. Fiona Lithander
Website
Guest Editor
NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Unit, Nutrition Theme, University of Bristol, Education and Learning Centre, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE
Interests: regulation of energy balance; acute (postprandial) and longer-term effects of diet on markers of metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease; the link between obesity and inflammation; undernutrition and HIV treatment outcome in the developing world; paediatric nutrition

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is now an expanding literature on increasing understanding of satiety, from the seminal work on the satiety cascade, appetite hormones, to more recent neuroimaging studies to examine the underlying mechanisms. A pertinent question for nutrition research is whether satiety, or the perception thereof, can be enhanced through behavioural 'interventions', modifications to foods, or the addition of bioactive nutrients, to help individuals control their eating behaviour and dietary intake.

Behavioural work thus far has included increasing attention to the meal as it is consumed, focusing on the expected satiety or memory of foods when planning meals, and slowing eating using various devices. An alternative, dietary approach is to modify the foods themselves; for example, by altering the texture of foods to slow consumption, manipulation of the macronutrient composition (e.g., increase in protein) or adding bioactive nutrients which may have an effect. Moreover, findings so far suggest that some individuals might be more receptive to such interventions than others, based on their 'satiety phenotype', level of intuitive or mindful eating, or responsiveness to satiety.

This Special Issue on ‘Enhancing satiety to reduce overconsumption’ aims to bring together this disparate work from research groups in this field, and to advance that field by highlighting novel ways in which to enhance understanding of existing satiety pathways to reduce overeating.

Dr. Elanor Hinton
Dr. Fiona Lithander
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • satiety
  • health
  • satiety responsiveness
  • appetite
  • eating behaviour
  • fMRI
  • intake
  • protein
  • appetite hormones
  • bioactive nutrients

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Association of Day-to-Day Variations in Physical Activity with Postprandial Appetite Regulation in Lean Young Males
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102267 - 20 Sep 2019
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that habitual physical activity improves postprandial appetite regulation. We evaluated the direct association between physical activity level (PAL) and postprandial appetite regulation, and the effect of day-to-day variations in PAL on improving postprandial appetite regulation in lean young males. [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that habitual physical activity improves postprandial appetite regulation. We evaluated the direct association between physical activity level (PAL) and postprandial appetite regulation, and the effect of day-to-day variations in PAL on improving postprandial appetite regulation in lean young males. Fourteen young male adults wore a triaxial accelerometer for at least 6 consecutive days to evaluate their PAL. Two random liquid preload tests were performed on separate days to evaluate the competence of postprandial appetite regulation. In the preload test, participants ate sandwiches ad libitum 75 min after drinking one of two liquids containing different energy densities. When a participant had an adequate regulation of their postprandial appetite, the difference in energy intake from sandwiches was expected to be close to the energy gap between both liquids. Average daily PAL (r = −0.558, p < 0.05), but not the SD of PAL, which is indicative of the day-to-day variations in PAL (r = −0.437, p > 0.1), correlated with the difference in energy intake from the sandwiches. In addition, higher average PAL was closer to the energy gap between the two liquids. These results suggest that average daily PAL, rather than day-to-day variations in PAL, predicts inter-individual variation in postprandial appetite regulation, at least for lean young males. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Influence of Raw Almonds on Appetite Control: Satiation, Satiety, Hedonics and Consumer Perceptions
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092030 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Snack foods can be substantial contributors to daily energy intake, with different types of snacks exerting potentially different effects on satiety per calorie consumed. The present research compared the effect of consuming almonds as a mid-morning snack compared to an energy and weight-matched [...] Read more.
Snack foods can be substantial contributors to daily energy intake, with different types of snacks exerting potentially different effects on satiety per calorie consumed. The present research compared the effect of consuming almonds as a mid-morning snack compared to an energy and weight-matched comparator snack (savoury crackers) or the equivalent weight of water (zero energy control). In a crossover design, 42 female participants (age: 26.0 ± 7.9, BMI: 22.0 ± 2.0) consumed a fixed breakfast then a mid-morning snack. Appetite, 24-h energy intake, food hedonics, and consumer perceptions of the snack foods were assessed under laboratory conditions. AUC analyses revealed a lower overall hunger drive after consuming almonds compared to crackers or water. There was no difference in 24-h energy intake in the almond compared to the cracker or the zero-energy control condition, however participants consumed more energy in the cracker condition compared to the zero-energy control condition. In addition, almonds suppressed hedonic preference (implicit wanting) for consuming high-fat foods and demonstrated a higher satiety quotient (SQ) than crackers. Almonds were perceived to have a more favourable consumer profile aligned with successful weight management. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that in the context of a 24-h period of objectively measured energy intake, raw almonds are effective for controlling appetite compared to an energy matched alternative snack. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov [NCT02480582]. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Satiating Effect of a Ketogenic Diet and Its Impact on Muscle Improvement and Oxidation State in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051156 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Background: It was previously established that Multiple sclerosis (MS) generates energy alterations at the mitochondrial level related to the loss of muscle mass. Ketone bodies, mainly beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), re-establish this energy alteration causing satiety, changes in body composition and a decrease in hormone-dependant [...] Read more.
Background: It was previously established that Multiple sclerosis (MS) generates energy alterations at the mitochondrial level related to the loss of muscle mass. Ketone bodies, mainly beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), re-establish this energy alteration causing satiety, changes in body composition and a decrease in hormone-dependant hunger, such as ghrelin. The aim of this study was to establish possible improvements in body composition and the level of oxidation in patients with MS, by means of the satiating effect of a ketogenic diet. Methods: A pilot study was carried out with 27 MS patients who were given a Mediterranean isocaloric and ketogenic diet for 4 months. Anthropometric measurements, as well as satiety and hunger perception (VAS scale), were taken. In addition, BHB and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), as an oxidation marker, were measured by spectrophotometric automated assays, and ghrelin was determined by an enzyme immunoassay in the serum. All measurements were taken before and after the intervention. Results: A significant increase in satiety perception at lunch and dinner and of BHB in the blood was obtained. Hunger perception decreased significantly at lunch and dinner with similar levels of ghrelin. In addition, an important increase in lean mass and PON1 was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study addressing improvements in body composition, oxidation state and metabolism in MS patients, based on the satiating effect of a Mediterranean isocaloric diet. Conclusion: A ketogenic diet increases lean mass and decreases inflammation and oxidation possibly as a consequence of an increase in satiety and decrease in hunger in MS patients. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Difficulties in Translating Appetite Sensations Effect of Turmeric-Based Beverage When Given Prior to Isoenergetic Medium- or High-Fat Meals in Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040736 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The established effect of turmeric and its curcuminoids on appetite sensations was previously shown to be mediated by gut hormones release. In in vitro and preclinical studies, curcumin was shown to induce GLP-1 secretion and improve postprandial glycemia. In humans, consumption of 220 [...] Read more.
The established effect of turmeric and its curcuminoids on appetite sensations was previously shown to be mediated by gut hormones release. In in vitro and preclinical studies, curcumin was shown to induce GLP-1 secretion and improve postprandial glycemia. In humans, consumption of 220 mL turmeric-based beverage (TUR, containing 185 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)) prior to white wheat bread (WWB, 50 g available carbohydrate) reduced early postprandial glucose levels and induced peptide tyrosine–tyrosine (PYY) release, as well as lowered ‘desire to eat’ and ‘prospective consumption’ in a postprandial setting, compared to control. In the present study, 12 healthy participants (5 men, 7 women) were admitted. An identical beverage was given and consumed prior to isoenergetic (423 kcal) medium-fat (MF) or high-fat (HF) meals. Appetite sensations including perceived ‘hunger’, ‘desire to eat’, ‘satiety’, ‘fullness’, ‘prospective consumption’, and ‘thirst’ were measured using visual analogue scales. MF induced 18% (p = 0.039) higher ‘satiety’ compared to HF. TUR consumption prior to either MF or HF did not modulate the perceived appetite sensations. Whether macronutrient-induced appetite sensations override the actual turmeric effects warrants further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Energy Restriction on Eating Behavior Traits and Psychobehavioral Factors in the Low Satiety Phenotype
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020245 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Studies have shown that individuals with low satiety efficiency may be more susceptible to weight gain, but little is known about the effect of weight loss intervention outcomes in these individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an energy-restricted weight loss [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that individuals with low satiety efficiency may be more susceptible to weight gain, but little is known about the effect of weight loss intervention outcomes in these individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an energy-restricted weight loss intervention on eating behavior traits and psychobehavioral factors in individuals differing in their satiety responsiveness. A pooled cohort of individuals who were overweight or obese (n = 100; aged 39 ± 9 years) participating in a 12- to 15-week weight loss program targeting an energy deficit of 500–700 kcal/day were included in this study. Satiety responsiveness was determined by a median split of the mean satiety quotient based on appetite sensations measured in response to a test meal at baseline (low satiety responsiveness (LSR) vs. high satiety responsiveness (HSR)). Anthropometric variables, eating behavior traits, psychobehavioral factors, and ad libitum energy intake were assessed before and after the intervention. Although similar weight loss was observed between the LSR and HSR groups (−3.5 ± 3.2 vs. −3.8 ± 2.8 kg, p = 0.64) in response to an energy-restricted weight loss intervention, changes in eating behavior traits were different between groups. Individuals with LSR had a higher increase in cognitive restraint (+5.5 ± 4.1 vs. +3.5 ± 3.5, p = 0.02) and some of its subscales and a lower decrease in situational susceptibility to disinhibition (−0.6 ± 1.1 vs. −1.2 ± 1.3, p = 0.02) in response to the intervention compared to the HSR group. In conclusion, energy-restricted weight loss intervention seems to trigger undesirable changes in some eating behavior traits in individuals more vulnerable to overeating, which could increase their susceptibility to weight regain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Slow Down: Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Reducing Eating Rate
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010050 - 27 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack [...] Read more.
Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Remembered Meal Satisfaction, Satiety, and Later Snack Food Intake: A Laboratory Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121883 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is well established that the satiety providing effects of food can influence meal size and a disparate area of research suggests that memory regarding recent eating informs food intake. Here we examined whether remembered meal satisfaction (encompassing memory for meal liking and [...] Read more.
It is well established that the satiety providing effects of food can influence meal size and a disparate area of research suggests that memory regarding recent eating informs food intake. Here we examined whether remembered meal satisfaction (encompassing memory for meal liking and satiety) can be manipulated in the laboratory and whether this influences later food intake. Participants (N = 128, body mass index mean = 23.46kg/m2, standard deviation = 4.70) consumed a fixed lunch and then rehearsed the satisfying or dissatisfying aspects of the meal, or a neutral experience (control), in order to manipulate memory for meal satisfaction. Three hours later participants completed a bogus taste-test to measure food intake and meal memory measures. There was no evidence that memory for general satisfaction with the meal was affected by the rehearsal condition. However, in the dissatisfying rehearsal condition, participants remembered being less satisfied with the satiety-providing effects of the lunch meal than in the satisfying and neutral rehearsal conditions. Snack food consumption did not differ across conditions and there was a small negative correlation between how satiating participants remembered their earlier meal to be and later snack food intake (r = −0.16, p = 0.07). The present study did not produce evidence that memory relating to meal satiety affects later food intake but further research is warranted. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
How Satiating Are the ‘Satiety’ Peptides: A Problem of Pharmacology versus Physiology in the Development of Novel Foods for Regulation of Food Intake
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071517 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Developing novel foods to suppress energy intake and promote negative energy balance and weight loss has been a long-term but commonly unsuccessful challenge. Targeting regulation of appetite is of interest to public health researchers and industry in the quest to develop ‘functional’ foods, [...] Read more.
Developing novel foods to suppress energy intake and promote negative energy balance and weight loss has been a long-term but commonly unsuccessful challenge. Targeting regulation of appetite is of interest to public health researchers and industry in the quest to develop ‘functional’ foods, but poor understanding of the underpinning mechanisms regulating food intake has hampered progress. The gastrointestinal (GI) or ‘satiety’ peptides including cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) secreted following a meal, have long been purported as predictive biomarkers of appetite response, including food intake. Whilst peptide infusion drives a clear change in hunger/fullness and eating behaviour, inducing GI-peptide secretion through diet may not, possibly due to modest effects of single meals on peptide levels. We conducted a review of 70 dietary preload (DIET) and peptide infusion (INFUSION) studies in lean healthy adults that reported outcomes of CCK, GLP-1 and PYY. DIET studies were acute preload interventions. INFUSION studies showed that minimum increase required to suppress ad libitum energy intake for CCK, GLP-1 and PYY was 3.6-, 4.0- and 3.1-fold, respectively, achieved through DIET in only 29%, 0% and 8% of interventions. Whether circulating ‘thresholds’ of peptide concentration likely required for behavioural change can be achieved through diet is questionable. As yet, no individual or group of peptides can be measured in blood to reliably predict feelings of hunger and food intake. Developing foods that successfully target enhanced secretion of GI-origin ‘satiety’ peptides for weight loss remains a significant challenge. Full article
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