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How Satiating Are the ‘Satiety’ Peptides: A Problem of Pharmacology versus Physiology in the Development of Novel Foods for Regulation of Food Intake

1
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1024, New Zealand
2
Riddet Institute, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
3
Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1024, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071517
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract

Developing novel foods to suppress energy intake and promote negative energy balance and weight loss has been a long-term but commonly unsuccessful challenge. Targeting regulation of appetite is of interest to public health researchers and industry in the quest to develop ‘functional’ foods, but poor understanding of the underpinning mechanisms regulating food intake has hampered progress. The gastrointestinal (GI) or ‘satiety’ peptides including cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) secreted following a meal, have long been purported as predictive biomarkers of appetite response, including food intake. Whilst peptide infusion drives a clear change in hunger/fullness and eating behaviour, inducing GI-peptide secretion through diet may not, possibly due to modest effects of single meals on peptide levels. We conducted a review of 70 dietary preload (DIET) and peptide infusion (INFUSION) studies in lean healthy adults that reported outcomes of CCK, GLP-1 and PYY. DIET studies were acute preload interventions. INFUSION studies showed that minimum increase required to suppress ad libitum energy intake for CCK, GLP-1 and PYY was 3.6-, 4.0- and 3.1-fold, respectively, achieved through DIET in only 29%, 0% and 8% of interventions. Whether circulating ‘thresholds’ of peptide concentration likely required for behavioural change can be achieved through diet is questionable. As yet, no individual or group of peptides can be measured in blood to reliably predict feelings of hunger and food intake. Developing foods that successfully target enhanced secretion of GI-origin ‘satiety’ peptides for weight loss remains a significant challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: appetite; satiety; cholecystokinin; glucagon-like peptide-1; peptide YY; dietary studies; infusion studies appetite; satiety; cholecystokinin; glucagon-like peptide-1; peptide YY; dietary studies; infusion studies
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Lim, J.J.; Poppitt, S.D. How Satiating Are the ‘Satiety’ Peptides: A Problem of Pharmacology versus Physiology in the Development of Novel Foods for Regulation of Food Intake. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1517.

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