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Open AccessArticle

Slow Down: Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Reducing Eating Rate

1
National Institute for Health Research Bristol Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
2
Nutrition and Behaviour Unit, School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, 12A Priory Rd, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
3
Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, 60 St Michael’s Hill, Bristol BS2 8DX, UK
4
School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12A Priory Rd, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
5
IGFs and Metabolic Endocrinology, University of Bristol, Second Floor, Learning and Research, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010050
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: eating rate; satiety; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); memory for recent eating; appetite hormones; meal enjoyment eating rate; satiety; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); memory for recent eating; appetite hormones; meal enjoyment
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Hawton, K.; Ferriday, D.; Rogers, P.; Toner, P.; Brooks, J.; Holly, J.; Biernacka, K.; Hamilton-Shield, J.; Hinton, E. Slow Down: Behavioural and Physiological Effects of Reducing Eating Rate. Nutrients 2019, 11, 50.

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