Type 2 diabetes and obesity are two chronic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome and their prevalences are increasing worldwide. The investigation of food protein-derived bioactive peptides that can improve the pathophysiology of diabetes or obesity while causing minimal side effects is desired. Egg and soy proteins generate bioactive peptides with multiple biological effects, exerting nutritional and physiological benefits. This review focuses on the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of egg- and soy-derived peptides and hydrolysates in vivo and in vitro relevant to these conditions. Studies using the intact protein were considered only when comparing the results with the hydrolysate or peptides. In vivo evidence suggests that bioactive peptides from egg and soy can potentially be used to manage elements of glucose homeostasis in metabolic syndrome; however, the mechanisms of action on glucose and insulin metabolism, and the interaction between peptides and their molecular targets remain unclear. Optimizing the production of egg- and soy-derived peptides and standardizing the physiological models to study their effects on diabetes and obesity could help to clarify the effects of these bioactive peptides in metabolic syndrome-related conditions.
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