Special Issue "Nutrition Status and Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Eva Maria Navarrete-Munoz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, History of Science and Gynecology, University Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche, Alicante, Spain
Interests: child and adolescent health; neuropsychology development; comunnity health; sensory profile; obesity; psycohometrics; occupational therapy; environmental factors; daily activity living; nutritional epidemiology; social factors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue of Nutrients, we would like to bring together papers dealing with the topic of the effect of nutritional status on physical, mental, or social health outcomes. In broad terms, the study of nutritional status may include issues about nutrient or food intake, dietary patterns, anthropometric measures, as well as biomarkers.

The beneficial effects of an adequate nutritional status against chronic diseases have been an object of study over the last decade. However, many questions concerning the crucial role of nutritional status on health at different stages of life remain open. Therefore, further research is required to provide strong evidence on the association between nutritional status and health outcomes.

We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses).

Potential topics may include but are not limited to the associations between macronutrients and micronutrients intake, dietary patterns, nutritional biomarker and anthropometric outcomes and cancer, cardiovascular disease, mental health, obesity, high blood pressure, quality of life, sensory processing profile, reproductive outcomes, and inflammatory bowel disease, among others.

Dr. Eva Maria Navarrete-Munoz
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Sensory processing profile
  • Obesity
  • Blood pressure
  • Adiposity
  • Cancer
  • Waist circumference
  • Dietary patterns
  • Vitamin D
  • Fish
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Article
Three-Year Follow-Up of the POIBA Intervention on Childhood Obesity: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020453 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Childhood obesity has increased worldwide over the past four decades. This quasi-experimental study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent and multilevel school-based intervention (POIBA) at 3 years of follow-up. The nutrition intervention focused on food groups, food pyramid, nutrients, portions, and [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity has increased worldwide over the past four decades. This quasi-experimental study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent and multilevel school-based intervention (POIBA) at 3 years of follow-up. The nutrition intervention focused on food groups, food pyramid, nutrients, portions, and balanced menus. In total, 3624 children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements and information on food frequency and behavior, physical activity, and daily screen use were collected in the intervention (IG) and comparison group (CG). Positive unadjusted changes toward adherence to recommendations were found for water, meat, sweets, and fried potato consumption, proper breakfast, not having dinner in front of the TV, out-of-school physical activity, and daily screen use. Three scores were used to calculate the proportion of children making more than one change to improve healthy habits regarding physical activity (global Activity score), nutrition (global Nutrition score), and both (global score). Students exposed to the intervention had a significantly better global Activity score (16.2% IG vs. 11.9% CG; p = 0.012) and Global score (63.9% IG vs. 58.5% CG; p = 0.025). Intervention effects on obesity incidence at 3-year follow-up lost significance but maintained the positive trend. In conclusion, school-based interventions including a family component could be useful to address the childhood obesity problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Are Dietary Indices Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Its Phenotypes? A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020313 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder which impairs ovarian function. The adherence to healthy dietary patterns and physical exercise are the first line of recommended treatment for PCOS patients, but it is yet unclear what type of diet is more [...] Read more.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder which impairs ovarian function. The adherence to healthy dietary patterns and physical exercise are the first line of recommended treatment for PCOS patients, but it is yet unclear what type of diet is more adequate. In this case-control study, we explored associations between adherence to five dietary quality indices and the presence of PCOS. We enrolled 126 cases of PCOS and 159 controls living in Murcia (Spain). Diagnostic of PCOS and its phenotypes were established following the Rotterdam criteria (hyperandrogenism (H), oligoanovulation (O), polycystic ovaries morphology (POM)). We used a validated food frequency questionnaires to calculate the scores of five dietary indices: alternate Healthy Eating index (AHEI), AHEI-2010, relative Mediterranean Dietary Score (rMED), alternate Mediterranean Dietary Score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals. In the multivariable analysis, AHEI-2010 index was inversely associated with Hyperandrogenism + Oligoanovulation PCOS phenotype (ORQ3 vs. Q1 = 0.1; 95% CI: (0.0; 0.9); Pfor trend = 0.02). We did not find any statistical significant association between dietary indices and total anovulatory or ovulatory PCOS. However, further studies with higher sample sizes exploring these associations among the diverse phenotypes of PCOS are highly warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Adherence to Child Feeding Practices and Child Growth: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis in Cambodia
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010137 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
Appropriate feeding in the first 1000 days of a child’s life is critical for their health and growth. We determined associations between adherence to age-appropriate feeding practices and child growth in Cambodia. Children (n = 1079) were included in the first follow-up (FU) [...] Read more.
Appropriate feeding in the first 1000 days of a child’s life is critical for their health and growth. We determined associations between adherence to age-appropriate feeding practices and child growth in Cambodia. Children (n = 1079) were included in the first follow-up (FU) data analyses and followed for 30 months (six FUs). Data were analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models. Children who adhered to feeding practices on at least three FUs, with an adequate minimal dietary diversity (MDD), a minimal acceptable diet (MAD), and age-appropriate daily feeding (ADF) were less stunted (14.8%, 12.3%, and 6.4%, respectively) than children who never adhered to these indicators (25.2%, 30.1%, and 24.8%, respectively). A higher adherence to MDD and ADF was associated with a higher height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) (β: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.01–0.25 and β: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.22–0.50), while a higher adherence to the MDD and MAD was associated with a higher weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) (β: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.08–0.30; and β: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05–0.27). A higher adherence to a minimum meal frequency (MMF) was associated with a lower HAZ (β: −0.99, 95% CI: −1.28–−0.70). Our findings showed that to reduce wasting and stunting in Cambodia, interventions should focus on improving both the quality and quantity of food intake of children under two while targeting the whole complementary feeding period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Association between Body Mass Index and Sensory Processing in Childhood: InProS Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123684 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 970
Abstract
We assessed the association between body mass index (BMI) and sensory processing in 445 Spanish children aged 3–7 from the InProS project. Child sensory processing was measured using the short sensory profile (SSP); an atypical sensory performance was defined as an SSP total [...] Read more.
We assessed the association between body mass index (BMI) and sensory processing in 445 Spanish children aged 3–7 from the InProS project. Child sensory processing was measured using the short sensory profile (SSP); an atypical sensory performance was defined as an SSP total score <155 and scores of tactile sensitivity <30; taste/smell sensitivity <15; movement sensitivity <13; under-responsive/seeks sensation <27; auditory filtering <23; low energy/weak <26; and visual/auditory sensitivity <19. The BMI was calculated according to the cutoffs by the World Health Organization for children aged 0–5 and 5–19 years. We used multiple Poisson regression models with robust variance to obtain prevalence ratios (PR). No associations between children’s overweight and obesity and the prevalence of atypical sensory outcomes were observed. A one-point increase in BMI was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of atypical tactile sensitivity (PR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02; 1.12). A statistically marginal association was also observed for atypical total SSP (PR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00; 1.07) and atypical movement sensitivity (PR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00; 1.10). To our knowledge, this is the first time the association between children’s BMI and sensory processing has been reported. Our findings suggest that sensory processing issues may play a part in the complex context of childhood obesity. Further research is required to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
Article
Pre-Pregnancy Obesity vs. Other Risk Factors in Probability Models of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092681 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
In the face of the obesity epidemic around the world, attention should be focused on the role of maternal obesity in the development of pregnancy. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the prediction of preeclampsia (PE) and isolated gestational hypertension (GH) [...] Read more.
In the face of the obesity epidemic around the world, attention should be focused on the role of maternal obesity in the development of pregnancy. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the prediction of preeclampsia (PE) and isolated gestational hypertension (GH) for a number of maternal factors, in order to investigate the importance of pre-pregnancy obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), compared to other risk factors (e.g., prior PE, pregnancy weight gain (GWG), infertility treatment, interpregnancy interval, family history, the lack of vitamin supplementation, urogenital infection, and socioeconomic factors). In total, 912 women without chronic diseases were examined in a Polish prospective cohort of women with a single pregnancy (recruited in 2015–2016). Separate analyses were performed for the women who developed GH (n = 113) vs. 775 women who remained normotensive, as well as for those who developed PE (n = 24) vs. 775 controls. The probability of each disease was assessed for the base prediction model (age + primiparity) and for the model extended by one (test) variable, using logistic regression. Three measures were used to assess the prediction: area under curve (AUC) of the base and extended model, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (the index shows the difference between the value of the mean change in the predicted probability between the group of sick and healthy women when a new factor is added to the model), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) (the index focuses on the reclassification table describing the number of women in whom an upward or downward shift in the disease probability value occurred after a new factor had been added, including results for healthy and sick women). In the GH prediction, AUC increased most strongly when we added BMI (kg/m2) as a continuous variable (AUC = 0.716, p < 0.001) to the base model. The highest IDI index was obtained for prior GH/PE (IDI = 0.068, p < 0.001). The addition of BMI as a continuous variable or BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 improved the classification for healthy and sick women the most (NRI = 0.571, p < 0.001). In the PE prediction, AUC increased most strongly when we added BMI categories (AUC = 0.726, p < 0.001) to the base model. The highest IDI index was obtained for prior GH/PE (IDI = 0.050, p = 0.080). The addition of BMI categories improved the classification for healthy and sick women the most (NRI = 0.688; p = 0.001). After summing up the results of three indexes, the probability of hypertension in pregnancy was most strongly improved by BMI, including BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 for the GH prediction, and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 for the PE prediction. Main conclusions: Pre-pregnancy BMI was the most likely factor to increase the probability of developing hypertension in pregnancy, compared to other risk factors. Hierarchies of PE and GH risk factors may suggest different (or common) mechanisms of their development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Associations of Serum Retinol and α-Tocopherol Levels with Uric Acid Concentrations: Analysis of a Population-Based, Nationally Representative Sample
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061797 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The effects of serum retinol and α-tocopherol on serum uric acid levels have not been established, especially in Asian people. This study evaluated the independent associations of retinol and α-tocopherol with serum uric acid levels in the Korean population. We included 6023 participants [...] Read more.
The effects of serum retinol and α-tocopherol on serum uric acid levels have not been established, especially in Asian people. This study evaluated the independent associations of retinol and α-tocopherol with serum uric acid levels in the Korean population. We included 6023 participants aged ≥ 19 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Serum retinol and α-tocopherol levels were divided into quintiles, and a multivariate linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of serum retinol and α-tocopherol levels with uric acid concentration. Additionally, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationships between the levels of these micronutrients and hyperuricemia. Serum retinol levels were positively associated with uric acid concentrations in a dose-dependent fashion in both sexes (ptrend < 0.001); the difference in serum uric acid levels between the highest and lowest quintiles of retinol levels was 0.57 mg/dL in men and 0.54 mg/dL in women. In the multivariable logistic model, the hyperuricemia risk increased linearly with the increase in serum retinol level, regardless of sex (ptrend < 0.001). Although the serum α-tocopherol level appeared to be significantly associated with increased uric acid levels, this association was nullified after adjusting for serum retinol levels. Serum retinol levels were positively associated with serum uric acid levels and hyperuricemia in a dose-response fashion. Maintaining serum retinol concentrations under sub-toxic levels might be necessary to prevent hyperuricemia-related adverse health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Dietary Diversity and Prostate Cancer in a Spanish Adult Population: CAPLIFE Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061694 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Dietary diversity (DD) is a key component of a high-quality diet, providing the adequate nutrient requirements. However, the role of DD on prostate cancer (PCa) is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between DD, adequate nutrient intake [...] Read more.
Dietary diversity (DD) is a key component of a high-quality diet, providing the adequate nutrient requirements. However, the role of DD on prostate cancer (PCa) is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between DD, adequate nutrient intake and PCa, according to the aggressiveness of the tumor. The CAPLIFE (CAP: prostate cancer; LIFE: lifestyles) study is a population-based case-control study including a total of 402 incident PCa cases and 302 controls. The DD score (DDS), adjusted by total energy intake, was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient adequacy was defined according to European Dietary Recommendation Intake for men. The aggressiveness of PCa was determined according to the International Society of Urology Pathology classification. The association between DDS, nutrient intake and PCa was assessed by logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors. DDS was similar for PCa cases and controls, independent of PCa aggressiveness. According to each food group DDS, the protein group showed the highest mean score in all the subgroups analyzed. However, no differences were observed for each of the DDS components. The DDS, the variety of the group’s food intake, and the adequate nutrient intake, were not associated with PCa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Canadian Adults with Moderate Intakes of Total Sugars have Greater Intakes of Fibre and Key Micronutrients: Results from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2015 Public Use Microdata File
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041124 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
Background: Global dietary guidelines recommend reducing free sugars intake, which may affect choices of sugars-containing foods, including important sources of key micronutrients. The purpose of the study was to compare the intakes of nutrients stratified by intakes of sugars in Canadian adults. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Global dietary guidelines recommend reducing free sugars intake, which may affect choices of sugars-containing foods, including important sources of key micronutrients. The purpose of the study was to compare the intakes of nutrients stratified by intakes of sugars in Canadian adults. Methods: The first-day 24-h dietary recalls from adults (n = 11,817) in the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition were used to compare macronutrients, micronutrients and food categories across quintiles of total sugars [by %energy (%E)], adjusted for misreporting status and covariates. Results: Canadian adults consumed on average 86.9 g/day (18.8 %E) from total sugars and 47.5 g/day (9.9 %E) from free sugars. Mean intakes for the 1st (Q1), 3rd (Q3) and 5th (Q5) quintiles of total sugars were 7.9%E, 18.3%E and 33.3%E, respectively. Q3 had higher fibre, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin C and potassium intakes than Q1 (p < 0.001), reflecting higher fruit, milk and yogurt (p < 0.001) consumption. Compared to Q5, Q3 had higher intakes of folate, vitamin B12, iron and zinc. Conclusion: This study provides the first detailed analyses of Canadian adults’ macro- and micro-nutrient intakes stratified by different intakes of total sugars. Moderate intakes of total sugars may result in greater intakes of fibre and micronutrients. Overall nutrient intake should be considered when making food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
The Relation of CUN-BAE Index with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Adults Aged 50 to 85 Years: The MCC-Spain Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040996 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Backgound: Traditional anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) do not fully capture the complex biology of body fat (BF) in the elderly. The Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) index, based on BMI, is proposed as [...] Read more.
Backgound: Traditional anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) do not fully capture the complex biology of body fat (BF) in the elderly. The Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) index, based on BMI, is proposed as a better indicator of BF. However, its relation with BMI is not clear. The aim was to compare the agreement between CUN-BAE, BMI, and WC in those aged ≥50 years. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 3153 Caucasian healthy adults was taken from the MCC-Spain study. The Pearson’s correlation and its 95% confidence interval (CI), adiposity distribution, and Kappa Index (95%CI) were calculated. Results: The correlation of CUN-BAE with WC is 0.18 (95%CI 0.14–0.21) and that with BMI is moderate (r 0.58; 95%CI 0.55–0.60), but both increased strongly by sex. Agreement (normal weight/overweight/obesity) of CUN-BAE with BMI is 7% and with WC is 18%. Conclusions: The correlation and the degree of agreement of CUN-BAE with BMI and WC are low in individuals aged over 50, but it is higher by sex. Thus, this different criterion of obesity may have clinical applications. More studies with a gold standard are needed to evaluate the CUN-BAE in elderly adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Biochemical and Hematological Correlates of Elevated Homocysteine in National Surveys and a Longitudinal Study of Urban Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040950 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Elevated blood homocysteine (Hcy) among middle-aged adults can increase age-related disease risk, possibly through other biochemical and hematological markers. We selected markers for hyperhomocysteinemia among middle-aged adults, studied time-dependent Hcy-marker associations and computed highly predictive indices of hyperhomocysteinemia, with cross-sectional and longitudinal validations. [...] Read more.
Elevated blood homocysteine (Hcy) among middle-aged adults can increase age-related disease risk, possibly through other biochemical and hematological markers. We selected markers for hyperhomocysteinemia among middle-aged adults, studied time-dependent Hcy-marker associations and computed highly predictive indices of hyperhomocysteinemia, with cross-sectional and longitudinal validations. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, phase 2, nmax = 4000), the NHANES 1999–2006 (nmax = 10,151) and pooled NHANES (cross-sectional validation). Longitudinal validation consisted of mixed-effects linear regression models (Hcy predicting markers’ annual rates of change), applied to the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (HANDLS, n = 227–244 participants, k = 2.4 repeats/participant, Agebase: 30–65 years) data. Machine learning detected nine independent markers for Hcy > 14 µmol/L (NHANES III, phase 2): older age; lower folate and B-12 status; higher serum levels of creatinine, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, and cotinine; mean cell hemoglobin and red cell distribution widths (RDW); results replicated in the 1999–2006 NHANES [AUC = 0.60–0.80]. Indices combining binary markers increased elevated Hcy odds by 6.9–7.5-fold. In HANDLS, first-visit Hcy predicted annual increase in creatinine, RDW and alkaline phosphatase, with third-visit index (2013–2018) directly predicting Hcy (2004–2009). We provide evidence of the internal and external validity of indices composed of several biomarkers that are strongly associated with elevated Hcy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Underhydration Is Associated with Obesity, Chronic Diseases, and Death Within 3 to 6 Years in the U.S. Population Aged 51–70 Years
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040905 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate that over 65% of adults aged 51–70 years in the U.S. do not meet hydration criteria. They have hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) and/or underhydration (serum sodium >145 mmol/L, [...] Read more.
Nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate that over 65% of adults aged 51–70 years in the U.S. do not meet hydration criteria. They have hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L) and/or underhydration (serum sodium >145 mmol/L, spot urine volume <50 mL, and/or spot urine osmolality ≥500 mmol/kg). To explore potential public health implications of not meeting hydration criteria, data from the NHANES 2009–2012 and National Center for Health Statistics Linked Mortality Files for fasting adults aged 51–70 years (sample n = 1200) were used to determine if hyponatremia and/or underhydration were cross-sectionally associated with chronic health conditions and/or longitudinally associated with chronic disease mortality. Underhydration accounted for 97% of the population group not meeting hydration criteria. In weighted multivariable adjusted Poisson models, underhydration was significantly associated with increased prevalence of obesity, high waist circumference, insulin resistance, diabetes, low HDL, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Over 3–6 years of follow-up, 33 chronic disease deaths occurred in the sample, representing an estimated 1,084,144 deaths in the U.S. Alongside chronic health conditions, underhydration was a risk factor for an estimated 863,305 deaths. Independent of the chronic health conditions evaluated, underhydration was a risk factor for 128,107 deaths. In weighted multivariable Cox models, underhydration was associated with 4.21 times greater chronic disease mortality (95% CI: 1.29–13.78, p = 0.019). Zero chronic disease deaths were observed for people who met the hydration criteria and did not already have a chronic condition in 2009–2012. Further work should consider effects of underhydration on population health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Folic Acid Fortification and Neural Tube Defect Risk: Analysis of the Food Fortification Initiative Dataset
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010247 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3341
Abstract
The United States implemented mandatory fortification of cereal grains with folic acid in 1998 to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) during pregnancy. The health benefits of folate (vitamin B9) are well documented; however, there are potential risks of exceeding the upper tolerable limit, [...] Read more.
The United States implemented mandatory fortification of cereal grains with folic acid in 1998 to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) during pregnancy. The health benefits of folate (vitamin B9) are well documented; however, there are potential risks of exceeding the upper tolerable limit, particularly in vulnerable populations. We conducted a population-based analysis of the Food Fortification Initiative dataset to determine the strength of the evidence regarding reports of decreased NTDs at the national level in response to mandatory folic acid fortification of cereal grains. We found a very weak correlation between NTD prevalence and the level of folic acid fortification, irrespective of the cereal grain fortified (wheat, maize or rice). Stratification of the data based on socioeconomic status (SES) indicated a strong linear relationship between reduced NTDs and better SES. We conclude that national fortification with folic acid is not associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of NTDs at the population level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Article
Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cardiometabolic Risks in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey, 2011–2015
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010129 - 02 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1383
Abstract
Cardiometabolic risks were increasing in Fukushima residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risks in those aged ≥16 years. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis for participants who underwent at least one [...] Read more.
Cardiometabolic risks were increasing in Fukushima residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake. We examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risks in those aged ≥16 years. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis for participants who underwent at least one diet assessment using a short-form food frequency questionnaire during 2011–2013 and a health checkup in 2014 and 2015 (n = 15,409 and 14,999, respectively). In 2014, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) in the highest versus lowest quartile of accumulative mean scores were 0.97 (0.96–0.99) for overweight/obesity, 0.96 (0.95–0.97) for total cholesterol (TC) ≥ 220 mg/dL, 0.96 (0.95–0.98) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 140 mg/dL, and 0.97 (0.96–0.99) for triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL for a vegetable diet and 1.03 (1.01–1.04) for TC ≥ 220 mg/dL and 1.02 (1.01–1.04) for LDL-C ≥ 140 mg/dL for a juice/milk diet. In 2015, we found consistently significant associations for the vegetable and juice/milk diets, and the PR and 95% CI were 0.99 (0.98–1.00) for HDL-C < 40 mg/dL for a meat diet. The continuous promotion of the vegetable pattern diet is necessary to reduce cardiometabolic risks, particularly dyslipidemia, in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Dietary Intakes and Cardiovascular Health of Healthy Adults in Short-, Medium-, and Long-Term Whole-Food Plant-Based Lifestyle Program
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010055 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4202
Abstract
An effective lifestyle strategy to reduce cardiovascular diseases risk (CVD) factors is needed. We examined the effects of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program on dietary intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in 151 adults (mean 39.6 (SD 12.5) years). Adherence was categorised [...] Read more.
An effective lifestyle strategy to reduce cardiovascular diseases risk (CVD) factors is needed. We examined the effects of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program on dietary intake and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in 151 adults (mean 39.6 (SD 12.5) years). Adherence was categorised into short-, medium- and long-term (years: (0.5–<2), (2–<5) and (5–10)), for both genders separately. Dietary intakes were assessed, fasting blood lipids and blood pressure (BP) were measured, and % participants reaching guideline recommended targets for LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and BP in the primary CVD prevention was assessed. There were no statistically significant differences in intakes of energy and most nutrients among participants (both genders), that were short-, medium- and long term in our program. Diet was mainly composed of unprocessed vegetables/fruits, whole grains, legumes, potatoes, and nuts/seeds. LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic BP were within targets for: 93%, 97%, 88% and 95% participants, respectively. In females (vs. males), total- and HDL-cholesterol were higher (mean): 3.8 (SD 0.7) vs. 3.4 (SD 0.9), p = 0.002 and 1.5 (SD 0.3) vs. 1.1 (SD 0.2) mmol/L, p < 0.001), systolic BP was lower (113 (SD 11) vs. 120 (SD 10) mmHg, p = 0.001), while there was no difference in diastolic BP (71 (SD 9) vs. 72 (SD 8) mmHg, p = 0.143). More females vs. males reached target triglycerides (99% vs. 91%, p = 0.021) and systolic BP (92% vs. 79%, p = 0.046), while similar females and males reached target LDL-cholesterol (94% vs. 91%, p = 0.500) and diastolic BP (93% vs. 100%, p = 0.107). Participation in our WFPB lifestyle program is associated with favourable dietary intakes, safety markers, and CV risk factor profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Review

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Review
Predefined Diets in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010052 - 26 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the importance of diet in pathological development. This study aims to understand how the use of predefined diets can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mediated by the immune system and characterized by the importance of diet in pathological development. This study aims to understand how the use of predefined diets can affect the adult population diagnosed with IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. From the different databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS, CINAHL, and WOS), we found 4195 registers. After a review process, only 31 research studies were selected for qualitative synthesis and 10 were selected for meta-analysis. The variables used were Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI) for patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD) and fecal calprotectin (FC), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and albumin (ALB) for patients with IBD. Predefined diets have been shown to have partial efficacy for the treatment of IBD and are compatible with other medical treatments. CDAI improved but with reasonable doubts due to the high heterogeneity of the data, while no differences were observed for ALB, FC, and CRP. More studies that evaluate the influence of predefined diets on IBD patients are needed due to the great variability in diets and the tools used to measure their effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Review
Ginger on Human Health: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of 109 Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010157 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5254
Abstract
Clinical applications of ginger with an expectation of clinical benefits are receiving significant attention. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion in terms of the clinical effects of ginger in all reported areas. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews [...] Read more.
Clinical applications of ginger with an expectation of clinical benefits are receiving significant attention. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion in terms of the clinical effects of ginger in all reported areas. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline, randomized controlled trials on the effects of ginger were investigated. Accordingly, 109 eligible papers were fully extracted in terms of study design, population characteristics, evaluation systems, adverse effects, and main outcomes. The reporting quality of the included studies was assessed based on the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials and integrated together with studies that investigated the same subjects. The included studies that examined the improvement of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, inflammation, metabolic syndromes, digestive function, and colorectal cancer’s markers were consistently supported, whereas other expected functions were relatively controversial. Nevertheless, only 43 clinical trials (39.4%) met the criterion of having a ‘high quality of evidence.’ In addition to the quality assessment result, small populations and unstandardized evaluation systems were the observed shortcomings in ginger clinical trials. Further studies with adequate designs are warranted to validate the reported clinical functions of ginger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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Comment
The Fallacy of Using Administrative Data in Assessing the Effectiveness of Food Fortification. Comment on: “Folic Acid Fortification and Neural Tube Defect Risk: Analysis of the Food Fortification Initiative Dataset. Nutrients 2020, 12, 247”
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051352 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Our objective in this comment is to highlight several limitations in an ecological research study that was published in Nutrients by Murphy and Westmark (2020) in January 2020. The study used data from the Food Fortification Initiative (FFI) website, and applying an ecological [...] Read more.
Our objective in this comment is to highlight several limitations in an ecological research study that was published in Nutrients by Murphy and Westmark (2020) in January 2020. The study used data from the Food Fortification Initiative (FFI) website, and applying an ecological study design, made an error of “ecologic fallacy” in concluding that “national fortification with folic acid is not associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) at the population level”. We list study limitations that led to their erroneous conclusions, stemming from incorrect considerations regarding NTD prevalence, the average grain availability for a country, the fortification coverage in a country, the population reach of fortified foods within a country, and the absence of the consideration of fortification type (voluntary vs. mandatory), country-specific policies on elective terminations for NTD-affected pregnancies, stillbirth proportions among those with NTDs, and fortification implementation. FFI data are derived from many sources and intended for fortification advocacy, not for hypothesis testing. The flawed study by Murphy & Westmark (2020) in Nutrients promotes a confusing and incorrect message to stakeholders, misguides policy makers, and hinders progress in global NTD prevention through a cost-effective, safe, and effective intervention: the mandatory large-scale folic acid fortification of staple foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
Reply
Reply to “The Fallacy of Using Administrative Data in Assessing the Effectiveness of Food Fortification. Comment on: Folic Acid Fortification and Neural Tube Defect Risk: Analysis of the Food Fortification Initiative Dataset. Nutrients 2020, 12, 247”
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051335 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
We would like to thank Kancherla et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status and Health)
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