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Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 42571

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
2. School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon GH506, Hong Kong
Interests: nutrition; successful and healthy aging; frailty; sarcopenia; chronic diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global population is aging at an unprecedented speed. Frailty and sarcopenia are two common conditions among the older adults. Frailty is characterized by several deficits in multiple health related domains while sarcopenia reflects declines in muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. Both conditions are related with functional decline in various physiological systems and lower quality of life.

While there is considerable interest among scientists regarding the effect of nutrition on frailty and sarcopenia epidemiology, there is still scant information on various factors as well as among temporal and regional patterns. Information among low- and middle- income older populations is limited. Recent studies have shown that specific nutritional components and dietary habits could have a beneficial effect on frailty syndrome as well as on sarcopenia and muscle loss. Given the importance of this issue, the journal Nutrients is planning a Special Issue on “Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention” with the aim of providing a source for accurate and up-to-date scientific information on this topic.

We invite you and your co-workers to consider the submission of your original research findings or a review article on the topic. Manuscripts should focus on the impact of specific food components, dietary patterns, energy intake, macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients, alcohol intake, food insecurity, innovative foods, as well as malnourishment and appetite to frailty and sarcopenia across older populations. We also welcome manuscripts that focus on community nutrition and intervention studies (i.e., protein diet, diet quality) that are related to frailty and sarcopenia.

Dr. Stefanos Tyrovolas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Frailty
  • Sarcopenia
  • Nutrition
  • Aging

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 6319 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Mortality in Europe, by Latitude and Obesity Status: A Geo-Spatial Analysis in 40 Countries
by Stefanos Tyrovolas, Thomas Tsiampalis, Marianthi Morena, Angela Y. M. Leung, Antigoni Faka, Christos Chalkias, Sotirios Tsiodras and Dimosthenes Panagiotakos
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030471 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2164
Abstract
On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a public health emergency of international concern and later characterized it as a pandemic. New data show that excess body mass and vitamin D deficiency [...] Read more.
On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a public health emergency of international concern and later characterized it as a pandemic. New data show that excess body mass and vitamin D deficiency might be related to the disease severity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether latitude, as a proxy of sunlight exposure and Vitamin D synthesis, and prevalent obesity among European populations, is related to COVID-19 spread and severity. European COVID-19 data (incidence and fatality), including information on the prevalence of obesity, social distancing, and others were obtained by the “Our World in Data” website on 17 April 2021. Adjusted analysis showed that higher COVID-19 incidence and fatality were pictured in countries being in higher latitude, both during the whole period, as well as, during the time period 1 November 2020–31 March 2021. Higher incidence and fatality of COVID-19 were observed where the prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher during the whole time period, whereas during the time period 1 November 2020–31 March 2021, only COVID-19 incidence was higher but not a fatality. The present results provide insights for targeted interventions and preventive strategies against COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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13 pages, 917 KiB  
Article
Magnitude, Temporal Trends, and Inequalities in the DALYs and YLDs of Nutritional Deficiency among Older Adults in the Western Pacific Region: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2019
by Doris Y. P. Leung, Hui-Lin Cheng, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Angel S. K. Tang, Justina Y. W. Liu, Mimi M. Y. Tse, Claudia K. Y. Lai and Alex Molassiotis
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4421; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124421 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
The population in the Western Pacific region is aging rapidly. Nutritional deficiency is prevalent in older adults; however, information regarding nutritional deficiency in this population is scarce. Using the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) results, the age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and [...] Read more.
The population in the Western Pacific region is aging rapidly. Nutritional deficiency is prevalent in older adults; however, information regarding nutritional deficiency in this population is scarce. Using the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) results, the age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLDs) from nutritional deficiency were estimated between 1990 and 2019 for this population. Average annual percentage change (AAPC) was used to assess temporal trends, and linear mixed-effects models were used to examine socioeconomic and sex inequalities. From 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized DALYs of nutritional deficiency in this population decreased from 697.95 to 290.95 per 100,000, and their age-standardized YLDs decreased from 459.03 to 195.65 per 100,000, with the greatest declines seen in South Korea (AAPCs < −5.0). Tonga had the least decline in DALYs (AAPC = −0.8), whereas Fiji experienced an increase in YLDs (AAPC = 0.1). Being female and having a lower sociodemographic index score was significantly associated with higher age-standardized DALYs and YLDs. The magnitude and temporal trends of the nutritional deficiency burden among older adults varied across countries and sex in the region, indicating that health policies on nutritional deficiency among older adults must be crafted to local conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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17 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
A 12-Week Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial, Evaluating the Effect of Supplementation with a Spinach Extract on Skeletal Muscle Fitness in Adults Older Than 50 Years of Age
by Silvia Pérez-Piñero, Vicente Ávila-Gandía, Jacobo A. Rubio Arias, Juan Carlos Muñoz-Carrillo, Pilar Losada-Zafrilla and Francisco Javier López-Román
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124373 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5519
Abstract
The aim of a 12-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to assess the effect of daily supplementation with a natural extract of Spinacia oleracea L. (4 × 500 mg capsules/day; total 2 g per day) combined with a moderate-intensity training program (1 h [...] Read more.
The aim of a 12-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to assess the effect of daily supplementation with a natural extract of Spinacia oleracea L. (4 × 500 mg capsules/day; total 2 g per day) combined with a moderate-intensity training program (1 h session/3 times a week) on skeletal muscle fitness in adults over 50 years of age. Muscle strength assessed by isokinetic and isometric dynamometry improved significantly in the experimental (n = 23) and the placebo (n = 22) groups, but the magnitude of improvement was higher in the experimental group, with between-group differences in almost all variables, including isokinetic at 60° s−1 in knee extension, peak torque (p < 0.007); total work per repetition maximum (p < 0.009); isokinetic at 180°s−1 in knee extension, peak torque (p < 0.002); total work (p < 0.007); total work per repetition maximum (p < 0.005); average power (p < 0.027); isometric in knee extension, peak torque (p < 0.005); and average peak torque (p < 0.002). Similar findings were observed for muscle quality. Changes in quality of life (SF-36) were not found, except for improvements in the role physical (p < 0.023) and role emotional (p < 0.001) domains, likely as a result of the physical training sessions. A nutritional survey did not revealed changes in dietary habits. No adverse events were recorded. In subjects over 50 years of age, moderate-intensity strength training combined with daily supplementation for 12 weeks with a natural extract of Spinacia oleracea L. improved muscle-related variables and muscle quality. Maintaining muscle health is a key component of healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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11 pages, 991 KiB  
Article
Association between Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index and The Presence of Sarcopenia in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Fuyuko Takahashi, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Ayumi Kaji, Ryosuke Sakai, Yuka Kawate, Takuro Okamura, Noriyuki Kitagawa, Hiroshi Okada, Naoko Nakanishi, Saori Majima, Takafumi Senmaru, Emi Ushigome, Mai Asano, Masahide Hamaguchi, Masahiro Yamazaki and Michiaki Fukui
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113729 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and the prevalence of sarcopenia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Having both low handgrip strength (<28 kg for men and <18 kg for [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and the prevalence of sarcopenia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Having both low handgrip strength (<28 kg for men and <18 kg for women) and low skeletal muscle mass index (<7.0 kg/m2 for men and <5.7 kg/m2 for women) was diagnosed as sarcopenia. GNRI was estimated by the formula as below: GNRI = (1.489 × serum albumin level [g/L]) + (41.7 × [current body weight (kg)/ideal body weight (kg)]). Participants were dichotomized on the basis of their GNRI scores (GNRI < 98, low; or GNRI ≥ 98, high). Among 526 people (301 men and 225 women) with T2DM, the proportions of participants with sarcopenia and low GNRI were 12.7% (n = 67/526) and 5.1% (n = 27/526), respectively. The proportion of sarcopenia in participants with low-GNRI was higher than that with high GNRI (44.4% [n = 12/27] vs. 11.0% [n = 55/499], p < 0.001). The GNRI showed positive correlations with handgrip strength (r = 0.232, p < 0.001) and skeletal muscle mass index (r = 0.514, p < 0.001). Moreover, low GNRI was related to the prevalence of sarcopenia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.88 [95% confidence interval: 1.88–12.7], p = 0.001). The GNRI, as a continuous variable, was also related to the prevalence of sarcopenia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 [95% confidence interval: 0.86–0.93], p < 0.001). The present study revealed that low GNRI was related to the prevalence of sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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10 pages, 463 KiB  
Article
Effect of Improvement in Sarcopenia on Functional and Discharge Outcomes in Stroke Rehabilitation Patients
by Tatsuya Matsushita, Shinta Nishioka, Shiori Taguchi, Anna Yamanouchi, Yuka Okazaki, Kana Oishi, Ryusei Nakashima, Tatsuya Fujii, Yoshiharu Tokunaga and Shinya Onizuka
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2192; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072192 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3507
Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigated the proportion of patients’ recovery from sarcopenia status and the relationship between improvement in sarcopenia (IS) and function and discharge outcome in hospitalized patients with stroke. This study included patients with stroke, aged 65 years or more, with a [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigated the proportion of patients’ recovery from sarcopenia status and the relationship between improvement in sarcopenia (IS) and function and discharge outcome in hospitalized patients with stroke. This study included patients with stroke, aged 65 years or more, with a diagnosis of sarcopenia, who were admitted to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 criteria. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia at discharge: IS group and non-improvement in sarcopenia (NIS) group. Among the 227 participants (mean age: 80.5 years; 125 females), 30% (69/227) of the patients were in the IS group, while 70% (158/227) were in the NIS group. The IS group showed a higher Functional Independence Measure (FIM) than the NIS group (median 112 vs. 101, p = 0.003). The results demonstrated that IS was independently associated with higher FIM (partial regression coefficient, 5.378; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.709–10.047). The IS group had higher odds of home discharge than the NIS group (odds ratio, 2.560; 95% CI, 0.912–7.170). In conclusion, recovery from sarcopenia may be associated with better function in patients with stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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9 pages, 557 KiB  
Article
Association between Food Insecurity and Sarcopenia among Adults Aged ≥65 Years in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
by Lee Smith, Louis Jacob, Yvonne Barnett, Laurie T. Butler, Jae Il Shin, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez, Pinar Soysal, Nicola Veronese, Josep Maria Haro and Ai Koyanagi
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061879 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3416
Abstract
Limited literature has investigated the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥65 years in six LMICs. Community-based [...] Read more.
Limited literature has investigated the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥65 years in six LMICs. Community-based cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. In the past, 12-month food insecurity was assessed with two questions on frequency of eating less and hunger due to lack of food. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The final sample consisted of 14,585 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.5) years; 55.0% females). The prevalence of sarcopenia among those with no food insecurity was 13.0% but this increased to 24.4% among those with severe food insecurity. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to no food insecurity, severe food insecurity was associated with 2.05 (95%CI = 1.12–3.73) times higher odds for sarcopenia. In this large representative sample of older adults from multiple LMICs, it was found that severe food insecurity is associated with higher odds for sarcopenia. Addressing food insecurity in such settings may be an effective strategy to curb the high prevalence of sarcopenia in LMICs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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Review

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14 pages, 309 KiB  
Review
Exercise and Nutrition Impact on Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia—The Incidence of Osteosarcopenia: A Narrative Review
by Sousana K. Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Gavriela Voulgaridou, Evridiki Georgaki, Eudoxia Tsotidou, Olga Zantidou and Dimitrios Papandreou
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124499 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 13314
Abstract
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are diseases which affect the myoskeletal system and often occur in older adults. They are characterized by low bone density and loss of muscle mass and strength, factors which reduce the quality of life and mobility. Recently, apart from pharmaceutical [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are diseases which affect the myoskeletal system and often occur in older adults. They are characterized by low bone density and loss of muscle mass and strength, factors which reduce the quality of life and mobility. Recently, apart from pharmaceutical interventions, many studies have focused on non-pharmaceutical approaches for the prevention of osteoporosis and sarcopenia with exercise and nutrition to being the most important and well studied of those. The purpose of the current narrative review is to describe the role of exercise and nutrition on prevention of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older adults and to define the incidence of osteosarcopenia. Most of the publications which were included in this review show that resistance and endurance exercises prevent the development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Furthermore, protein and vitamin D intake, as well as a healthy diet, present a protective role against the development of the above bone diseases. However, current scientific data are not sufficient for reaching solid conclusions. Although the roles of exercise and nutrition on osteoporosis and sarcopenia seem to have been largely evaluated in literature over the recent years, most of the studies which have been conducted present high heterogeneity and small sample sizes. Therefore, they cannot reach final conclusions. In addition, osteosarcopenia seems to be caused by the effects of osteoporosis and sarcopenia on elderly. Larger meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials are needed designed based on strict inclusion criteria, in order to describe the exact role of exercise and nutrition on osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
19 pages, 4296 KiB  
Review
Sarcopenic Dysphagia: A Narrative Review from Diagnosis to Intervention
by Kuan-Cheng Chen, Ying Jeng, Wei-Ting Wu, Tyng-Guey Wang, Der-Sheng Han, Levent Özçakar and Ke-Vin Chang
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114043 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 8178
Abstract
Sarcopenia, defined as a decline in muscle mass and function related to aging, affects both limb and swallowing-related muscles. Sarcopenic dysphagia is characterized by decreased swallowing function; therefore, early detection of subclinical dysphagia and subsequent intervention appear to be crucial in the elderly. [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia, defined as a decline in muscle mass and function related to aging, affects both limb and swallowing-related muscles. Sarcopenic dysphagia is characterized by decreased swallowing function; therefore, early detection of subclinical dysphagia and subsequent intervention appear to be crucial in the elderly. Numerous tools have been employed to measure the function, strength, and mass of swallowing-related muscles in sarcopenic elderly. The swallowing function can be evaluated by questionnaires like Eating Assessment Tool, Functional Oral Intake Scale, and Food Intake Level Scale, and tests such as the modified water swallowing test and videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Surface electromyography and high-resolution manometry can be applied for quantifying swallowing-related muscle strength. Modalities such as ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are capable of estimating the swallowing muscle mass. In patients with sarcopenic dysphagia, a thorough assessment should be given followed by an integrated intervention combining swallowing muscle strengthening, nutrition support, food texture modification, physical, and occupational therapies. This article aimed to comprehensively summarize the diagnostic criteria/tools as well as their associations/performance in sarcopenic dysphagia. The intervention strategy will also be narrated in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Frailty and Sarcopenia Prevention)
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