Special Issue "Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Masaharu Kagawa
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Guest Editor
Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Kagawa Nutrition University, 3-9-21 Chiyoda, Sakado, Saitama 350-0288, Japan
Interests: anthropometry and body composition assessments on infants, children and adults; body image; public health nutrition
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Colin W. Binns
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Australia
Interests: infant nutrition, antenatal nutrition, public health nutrition and epidemiology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Andrew P. Hills
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia
Interests: exercise; obesity in pregnancy and early life; weight management; body composition assessment; eating and activity behaviours; sarcopenia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary intake with adequate energy and nutrients is essential for optimal growth, development, metabolism, physiological function, and overall health and wellbeing. However, for many individuals and populations, the achievement of optimal nutrition is challenging, particularly in the context of significant global public health concerns of under- and over-nutrition. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that more than 1.9 billion adults above 18 years of age worldwide were overweight or obese in 2016. The obesity epidemic is also affecting people of all ages with an estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 being overweight or obese while at the same time 155 million children are stunted. A further challenge in many settings is the number of individuals, particularly adolescents and young adults, who are predisposed to eating disorders. Infants and young children (particularly during the first 1000 days after conception) are vulnerable to malnutrition, which substantially increases morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with poor growth, lower physiological and cognitive function, and predisposition to chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), later in life. The causes of malnutrition are multifactorial and while the prevalence has dropped substantially worldwide there are still many vulnerable populations. Added complexities, including climate change, contribute a range of new challenges to maintain and improve the nutritional status of populations using agricultural and marine resources in a sustainable way. Development and maintenance of optimal body composition are central to reducing morbidity and mortality; however, crude approaches are commonly used to predict body composition or its components. Regular monitoring of body weight (and calculation of body mass index (BMI)) is a simple option regarding nutritional assessment. However, weight and height are anthropometric measures as opposed to body composition approaches per se. An ongoing challenge is to evaluate the size, shape, and composition of the human body using various anthropometric approaches, particularly where access to affordable body composition techniques is limited. This Special Issue covers a broad range of topics to better understand nutrition and dietary intake and the relationship with anthropometric indices (including BMI) and body composition assessment approaches.

Assoc. Prof. Masaharu Kagawa
Prof. Colin W. Binns
Prof. Andrew P. Hills
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • dietary intakes
  • BMI
  • Malnutrition
  • overweight/obesity
  • underweight
  • maternal health
  • anthropometry
  • body composition
  • public health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Association Between Diet, Physical Activity and Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density of Soldiers of the Polish Air Cavalry Units
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010242 - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
Research from recent years indicates a problem of excessive body weight among soldiers, who, due to the kind of work carried out, should possess good health and fitness levels. The aim of the study was to determine the association between diet and physical [...] Read more.
Research from recent years indicates a problem of excessive body weight among soldiers, who, due to the kind of work carried out, should possess good health and fitness levels. The aim of the study was to determine the association between diet and physical activity and the nutritional status of soldiers of the Polish Air Cavalry Units. One hundred and twenty male soldiers (aged 28 ± 5 years) completed a questionnaire (food frequency questionnaire, long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire). Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and bone calcification of the forearm was assessed by the DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) densitometric method. This study confirmed the association between both the diet and physical activity and body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) expressed as T-score. Significant negative correlations were found between BMI and the frequency of consumption of cereal products, meat products and fish, and nonalcoholic beverages, between FMI and cereal products, and between BMD T-score and meat products and fish, fat, nuts, and grains, sweets and snacks, and nonalcoholic beverages. Physical activity expressed as metabolic equivalent (MET-minutes/week) negatively correlated with FMI (but not BMI) and positively correlated with the BMD T-score. This study confirmed numerous irregularities in eating behavior and in nutritional status indices; therefore, there is a need for nutritional education and further monitoring of both dietary behaviors and nutritional status of soldiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Three-Week in-Hospital Multidisciplinary Body Weight Reduction Program on Body Composition, Muscle Performance and Fatigue in a Pediatric Obese Population with or without Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010208 (registering DOI) - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of cardiometabolic risk factors, frequently detected in obese children and adolescents. To date, few clinical studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multidisciplinary body weight reduction programs on body mass index, body composition, muscle performance and fatigue in pediatric [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome is a combination of cardiometabolic risk factors, frequently detected in obese children and adolescents. To date, few clinical studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multidisciplinary body weight reduction programs on body mass index, body composition, muscle performance and fatigue in pediatric obese subjects suffering from metabolic syndrome, which might represent a sub-population that is more difficult to be treated and worthy of more intensive interventions than a population less metabolically complicated. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of a three-week in-hospital multidisciplinary integrated body weight reduction program (BWRP) on body mass index (BMI), body composition (particularly, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)), motor control (evaluated by one-leg standing balance (OLSB) test), muscle performance (evaluated by the stair climbing test (SCT)) and fatigue (evaluated by fatigue severity scale (FSS)) in a pediatric obese population with or without metabolic syndrome. A pediatric population of 548 obese subjects without metabolic syndrome (F/M = 312/236; age range: 8–18 years; BMI: 36.3 ± 6.7 kg/m2) and 96 obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (F/M = 53/43; age range: 9–18 years; BMI: 38.3 ± 6.9 kg/m2) was recruited. The BWRP significantly reduced BMI, FM (expressed as %), SCT time and FSS score, and increased OLSB time in all subgroups of obese subjects, independent of sex and metabolic syndrome, with preservation of FFM. No significant differences in |ΔBMI|, |ΔFM|, |ΔOLSB| or |ΔSCT| times and |ΔFSS| score were found when comparing subjects (males and females) with or without metabolic syndrome, apart from obese females without metabolic syndrome, who exhibited a lower weight loss and FM (expressed as %) reduction when compared to the corresponding male counterpart. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of a three-week BWRP on BMI, body composition, muscle performance and fatigue in a pediatric obese population were not found to be different in patients with or without metabolic syndrome, thus indicating that the more metabolically compromised patient is as responsive to a short-term BWRP as the patient without metabolic syndrome. More prolonged follow-up studies are, however, necessary in order to verify whether the adherence to the multidisciplinary recommendations at home and the long-term maintenance of the positive effects in the two subgroups of patients will remain similar or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Dietary Micronutrient Intakes by Body Weight Status among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic Black Women Aged 19–39 Years: An Analysis of NHANES 2003–2014
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122846 - 20 Nov 2019
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to examine micronutrient intake from foods in women of childbearing age and to better understand potential nutritional problems varied by body weight status in minority women. A sample of women aged 19–39 years from the National [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study was to examine micronutrient intake from foods in women of childbearing age and to better understand potential nutritional problems varied by body weight status in minority women. A sample of women aged 19–39 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003–2014 was analyzed. Dietary intakes of 13 micronutrients were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. Mexican-American and non-Hispanic Black women were categorized into normal/under-weight, overweight, or obese groups according to their body mass index (BMI). Mexican-American and non-Hispanic Black women had lower dietary intakes for vitamins A, B2, B6, B12, and D, folate, calcium, and magnesium than non-Hispanic Whites. Among Mexican-Americans, obese women had the lowest dietary intake of vitamins A, B2, C and D. Obese non-Hispanic Black women had significantly lower dietary intakes of iron and zinc than their normal/under-weight counterparts. Comparable percentages (>30%) of Mexican-American and non-Hispanic Black women had dietary intake less than the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for several key nutrients including vitamin A, C and D, folate, calcium and magnesium, and the percentages varied by body weight status. These results indicate micronutrient inadequacies persist among and within racial/ethnic and body weight groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Food-Based Diet Quality Score from a Short FFQ and Associations with Obesity Measures, Eating Styles and Nutrient Intakes in Finnish Twins
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112561 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0–12 points) was constructed [...] Read more.
We constructed a food-based diet quality score (DQS) and examined its association with obesity measures, eating styles and nutrient intakes. Participants were 3592 individuals (764 dizygotic [DZ] and 430 monozygotic [MZ] twin pairs) from the FinnTwin16 study. The DQS (0–12 points) was constructed from a short 14 item food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measures and eating styles were self-reported. Nutrient intakes were calculated from food diaries completed in a subsample of 249 individuals (45 same-sex DZ and 60 MZ twin pairs). Twins were analyzed both as individuals and as twin pairs. The DQS was inversely associated with body mass index (β = −0.12, per one-unit increase in DQS, p < 0.001), waist circumference (β = −0.34, p < 0.001), obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, p = 0.004) and abdominal obesity (OR: 0.88, p < 0.001), independent of sex, age, physical activity and education. A higher DQS was associated with health-conscious eating, having breakfast, less snacking, fewer evening meals, and a higher frequency and regularity of eating. The DQS was positively correlated with the intakes of protein, fiber and magnesium and negatively correlated with the intakes of total fat, saturated fat and sucrose. Within twin pairs, most of the associations between the DQS with eating styles and some nutrients remained, but the DQS was not associated with obesity measures within twin pairs. The DQS is an easy-to-use tool for ranking adults according to diet quality and shows an association with obesity measures, eating styles and key nutrients in the expected direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
Open AccessArticle
Acceptance and Impact of Millet-Based Mid-Day Meal on the Nutritional Status of Adolescent School Going Children in a Peri Urban Region of Karnataka State in India
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092077 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The study assessed the potential for use of millets in mid-day school meal programs for better nutritional outcomes of children in a peri-urban region of Karnataka, India, where children conventionally consumed a fortified rice-based mid-day meal. For a three-month period, millet-based mid-day meals [...] Read more.
The study assessed the potential for use of millets in mid-day school meal programs for better nutritional outcomes of children in a peri-urban region of Karnataka, India, where children conventionally consumed a fortified rice-based mid-day meal. For a three-month period, millet-based mid-day meals were fed to 1500 adolescent children at two schools, of which 136 were studied as the intervention group and were compared with 107 other children in two other schools that did not receive the intervention. The intervention design was equivalent to the parallel group, two-arm, superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The end line allocation ratio was 1.27:1 due to attrition. It was found that there was statistically significant improvement in stunting (p = 0.000) and the body mass index (p = 0.003) in the intervention group and not in the control group (p = 0.351 and p = 0.511, respectively). The sensory evaluation revealed that all the millet-based menu items had high acceptability, with the highest scores for the following three items: finger millet idli, a steam cooked fermented savory cake; little and pearl millet bisi belle bath, a millet-lentil hot meal; and upma, a pearl and little millet-vegetable meal. These results suggest significant potential for millets to replace or supplement rice in school feeding programs for improved nutritional outcomes of children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
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