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Open AccessArticle

Association Between Diet, Physical Activity and Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density of Soldiers of the Polish Air Cavalry Units

1
Laboratory of Food and Nutrition Hygiene, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Kozielska 4, 01-163 Warsaw, Poland
2
Laboratory of Physiology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Kozielska 4, 01-163 Warsaw, Poland
3
Faculty of National Security, Department of Security Education, The War Studies University in Warsaw, Al. gen. Antoniego Chruściela “Montera” 103, 00-910 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010242
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 15 January 2020 / Published: 17 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
Research from recent years indicates a problem of excessive body weight among soldiers, who, due to the kind of work carried out, should possess good health and fitness levels. The aim of the study was to determine the association between diet and physical activity and the nutritional status of soldiers of the Polish Air Cavalry Units. One hundred and twenty male soldiers (aged 28 ± 5 years) completed a questionnaire (food frequency questionnaire, long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire). Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and bone calcification of the forearm was assessed by the DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) densitometric method. This study confirmed the association between both the diet and physical activity and body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) expressed as T-score. Significant negative correlations were found between BMI and the frequency of consumption of cereal products, meat products and fish, and nonalcoholic beverages, between FMI and cereal products, and between BMD T-score and meat products and fish, fat, nuts, and grains, sweets and snacks, and nonalcoholic beverages. Physical activity expressed as metabolic equivalent (MET-minutes/week) negatively correlated with FMI (but not BMI) and positively correlated with the BMD T-score. This study confirmed numerous irregularities in eating behavior and in nutritional status indices; therefore, there is a need for nutritional education and further monitoring of both dietary behaviors and nutritional status of soldiers. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition; physical activity; nutritional status; body mass index; fat mass index; bone calcification; soldiers nutrition; physical activity; nutritional status; body mass index; fat mass index; bone calcification; soldiers
MDPI and ACS Style

Anyżewska, A.; Łakomy, R.; Lepionka, T.; Szarska, E.; Maculewicz, E.; Tomczak, A.; Bertrandt, J. Association Between Diet, Physical Activity and Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density of Soldiers of the Polish Air Cavalry Units. Nutrients 2020, 12, 242.

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