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Open AccessArticle

Preoccupation with Body Weight and Under-Reporting of Energy Intake in Female Japanese Nutrition Students

by Masaharu Kagawa 1,2,3,4,* and Andrew P. Hills 3,5,6
Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Kagawa Nutrition University, Saitama 350-0288, Japan
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6845, Australia
Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7250, Australia
Mater Research Institute, The University of Queensland, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 830;
Received: 11 February 2020 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Dietary Intake for Anthropometry and Body Mass Index)
The present study aimed to examine associations between body image and under-reporting in female Japanese university students enrolled in a nutrition degree program. A total of 100 participants (aged 18–29 years) completed (1) a self-administered questionnaire including the Ben-Tovim Walker Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ), (2) a dietary assessment using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), (3) a physical activity assessment using Bouchard’s Physical Activity Record (BAR) and a tri-axial accelerometer, (4) detailed anthropometry, and (5) body composition assessment. Based on the energy intake to basal metabolic rate ratio (EI:BMR) and using a cut-off point of 1.35, 67% of participants were considered under-reporters (URs). While there was no between-group difference in BMI, URs had significantly (p < 0.05) greater percentage body fat (%BF) and trunk fat (%TF) compared with non-URs. Regression analyses indicated accuracy of body perception and a discrepancy between current and ideal weight were associated with EI:BMR, whereas the salience subscale of the BAQ was associated with reported EI. The study raises concerns regarding the validity of EI reported from young Japanese females as they are known to have a strong preoccupation with thinness, even with an acceptable BMI and health and nutritional knowledge. View Full-Text
Keywords: under-reporting; energy intake; body image; Japanese females; dietary assessment under-reporting; energy intake; body image; Japanese females; dietary assessment
MDPI and ACS Style

Kagawa, M.; Hills, A.P. Preoccupation with Body Weight and Under-Reporting of Energy Intake in Female Japanese Nutrition Students. Nutrients 2020, 12, 830.

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