The present study aimed to examine associations between body image and under-reporting in female Japanese university students enrolled in a nutrition degree program. A total of 100 participants (aged 18–29 years) completed (1) a self-administered questionnaire including the Ben-Tovim Walker Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ), (2) a dietary assessment using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), (3) a physical activity assessment using Bouchard’s Physical Activity Record (BAR) and a tri-axial accelerometer, (4) detailed anthropometry, and (5) body composition assessment. Based on the energy intake to basal metabolic rate ratio (EI:BMR) and using a cut-off point of 1.35, 67% of participants were considered under-reporters (URs). While there was no between-group difference in BMI, URs had significantly (p
< 0.05) greater percentage body fat (%BF) and trunk fat (%TF) compared with non-URs. Regression analyses indicated accuracy of body perception and a discrepancy between current and ideal weight were associated with EI:BMR, whereas the salience subscale of the BAQ was associated with reported EI. The study raises concerns regarding the validity of EI reported from young Japanese females as they are known to have a strong preoccupation with thinness, even with an acceptable BMI and health and nutritional knowledge.
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