Special Issue "The Role of Nutrition in ADHD, Psychiatric, and Mental Disorders Treatment"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2021) | Viewed by 22903

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Roser Granero
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Guest Editor
Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: eating disorders; behavioral addictions; methodology; clinical psychology; health sciences
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Diego Redolar Ripoll
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Cognit NeuroLab, UOC Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: cognitive; neuroscience; psychobiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental chronic disorder which etiology seems the result of complex interactions between multiple factors, including genetic, biological and environmental influences. Treatment research evidence that the combination of both medication with behavioral therapy can improve ADHD symptoms, but the long-term effects of most intervention plans have not been clearly established. Moreover, recent studies suggest the need for new approaches aimed at the underlying triggers of this complex disorder (such as stress, poor sleep, overstimulation, technology or certain dietary plans), on the basis that making adequate lifestyle changes to minimize these triggers could contribute to better control ADHD symptoms. In this context, studies addressing the efficacy of nutrition on the developmental course of ADHD observe that deficiencies in certain types of foods can worse the symptoms of attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity, while adequate dietary plans could optimize brain functions. But the specific causal pathways of the dietary styles (including diet eliminations/supplements) adjuvant for medication and psychotherapies contributing to prevent/reduce ADHD symptoms are largely unknown, as well as the long-term effects.

This special issue, “The Role of Nutrition in ADHD Treatment”, aims at obtaining evidence of the potential contribution of the nutrition style/s on the treatment outcomes of individuals with ADHD across development, and the underlying mechanisms explaining the direct and mediational effects. Given the multifaceted and complex nature of this neurodevelopmental disorder, the onset at early ages of the child and its chronic presentation across development, the findings of the works could also contribute to the elaboration of guidelines/recommendations for improving caring capacity of healthcare practitioners and family caregivers.

Manuscript submissions may include original research articles (clinical, translational or basic research), systematic reviews and meta-analysis on the effects of nutrition on the treatment outcomes of ADHD.

Dr. Roser Granero
Dr. Diego Redolar Ripoll
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Development
  • Dietary
  • Eating Behavior
  • Nutrition
  • Evidence-based Treatment
  • Interventions
  • Treatment
  • Outcomes

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Role of Nutrition and Diet on Healthy Mental State
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040750 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
A large number of scientists and health professionals recognize that balanced nutrition is fundamental for a good state of physical health [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Fasting Interventions for Stress, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3947; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113947 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
Background. Fasting interventions have shown effectiveness in alleviating stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, no quantitative analysis has been carried out thus far. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of fasting interventions on stress, anxiety and depression and if these interventions were [...] Read more.
Background. Fasting interventions have shown effectiveness in alleviating stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, no quantitative analysis has been carried out thus far. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of fasting interventions on stress, anxiety and depression and if these interventions were associated with increased or decreased fatigue/energy. Methods. Overall, 11 studies and 1436 participants were included in the quantitative analyses. Results. After limiting analyses to randomized controlled trials with low risk of bias, we found that fasting groups had lower anxiety (b = −0.508, p = 0.038), depression levels (b= −0.281, p = 0.012) and body mass index compared to controls without increased fatigue. There was no publication bias and no heterogeneity for these results. These interventions were safe, even in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusions. These results should be taken with a caveat. These results are preliminary and encouraging and fasting appears to be a safe intervention. Data are not sufficient to recommend one fasting intervention more than the others. No study was carried out in psychiatric populations and further trials should be carried out in these populations that may be good candidates for fasting interventions. Full article
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Article
Dietary Patterns, Eating Behavior, and Nutrient Intakes of Spanish Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103551 - 10 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Eating behavior problems are characteristic of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with a highly restricted range of food choices, which may pose an associated risk of nutritional problems. Hence, detailed knowledge of the dietary patterns (DPs) and nutrient intakes of ASD patients [...] Read more.
Eating behavior problems are characteristic of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with a highly restricted range of food choices, which may pose an associated risk of nutritional problems. Hence, detailed knowledge of the dietary patterns (DPs) and nutrient intakes of ASD patients is necessary to carry out intervention strategies if required. The present study aimed to determine the DPs and macro-and micronutrient intakes in a sample of Spanish preschool children with ASD compared to typically developing control children. Fifty-four children with ASD (two to six years of age) diagnosed with ASD according to the Diagnostic Manual-5 criteria), and a control group of 57 typically developing children of similar ages were recruited. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used, and the intake of energy and nutrients was estimated through three non-consecutive 24-h dietary registrations. DPs were assessed using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Children with ASD exhibited a DP characterized by high energy and fat intakes and a low intake of vegetables and fruits. Likewise, meat intake of any type, both lean and fatty, was associated with higher consumption of fish and dietary fat. Furthermore, the increased consumption of dairy products was associated with increased consumption of cereals and pasta. In addition, they had frequent consumption of manufactured products with poor nutritional quality, e.g., beverages, sweets, snacks and bakery products. The percentages of children with ASD complying with the adequacy of nutrient intakes were higher for energy, saturated fat, calcium, and vitamin C, and lower for iron, iodine, and vitamins of group B when compared with control children. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need to assess the DPs and nutrient intakes of children with ASD to correct their alterations and discard some potential nutritional diseases. Full article
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Article
Individual Behavioral Reactions in the Context of Food Sensitivities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder before and after an Oligoantigenic Diet
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082598 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The influence of food intake on behavior problems of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was already described in the early 20th century. Eliminating food components by using the Oligoantigenic Diet (OD) leads to reduction of ADHD symptoms for more than two-thirds of patients. [...] Read more.
The influence of food intake on behavior problems of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was already described in the early 20th century. Eliminating food components by using the Oligoantigenic Diet (OD) leads to reduction of ADHD symptoms for more than two-thirds of patients. The aim of our study was to reveal how to identify foods having an impact on ADHD symptomatology. Therefore, 28 children with ADHD participating in this uncontrolled, open trial were examined before and after a restricted elimination diet. They kept a daily 24-h recall nutrition and behavior journal and filled out the abbreviated Conners’ scale (ACS) to identify foods which increased ADHD symptoms. The study was completed by 16 children (13 m/3 f). After four weeks of elimination diet the individual food sensitivities were identified in a reintroduction phase. A repetitive increase of ADHD symptoms by at least two points in ACS after food introduction hints at food sensitivity. Twenty-seven food sensitivity reactions were identified. Most of the participants were sensitive to more than one food. Food intolerances could not be identified without preceding OD. The combination of OD and subsequent food challenge appears as a valid method to identify individual food sensitivity in ADHD. Full article
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Review

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Review
Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040739 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6391
Abstract
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD impairments arise from irregularities primarily in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) circuits within the prefrontal cortex. Due to ADHD medication’s controversial side effects and [...] Read more.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD impairments arise from irregularities primarily in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) circuits within the prefrontal cortex. Due to ADHD medication’s controversial side effects and high rates of diagnosis, alternative/complementary pharmacological therapeutic approaches for ADHD are needed. Although the number of publications that study the potential effects of caffeine consumption on ADHD treatment have been accumulating over the last years, and caffeine has recently been used in ADHD research in the context of animal models, an updated evidence-based systematic review on the effects of caffeine on ADHD-like symptoms in animal studies is lacking. To provide insight and value at the preclinical level, a systematic review based on PRISMA guidelines was performed for all publications available up to 1 September 2021. Caffeine treatment increases attention and improves learning, memory, and olfactory discrimination without altering blood pressure and body weight. These results are supported at the neuronal/molecular level. Nonetheless, the role of caffeine in modulating ADHD-like symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity is contradictory, raising discrepancies that require further clarification. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that the cognitive effects of caffeine found in animal models could be translated to human ADHD, particularly during adolescence. Full article
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Review
Diet and Anxiety: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4418; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124418 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
Anxiety disorders are the most common group of mental disorders. There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of nutrition in the development and progression of mental disorders such as depression; however, less is known about the role of nutrition in anxiety disorders. This [...] Read more.
Anxiety disorders are the most common group of mental disorders. There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of nutrition in the development and progression of mental disorders such as depression; however, less is known about the role of nutrition in anxiety disorders. This scoping review sought to systematically map the existing literature on anxiety disorders and nutrition in order to identify associations between dietary factors and anxiety symptoms or disorder prevalence as well as identify gaps and opportunities for further research. The review followed established methodological approaches for scoping reviews. Due to the large volume of results, an online program (Abstrackr) with artificial intelligence features was used. Studies reporting an association between a dietary constituent and anxiety symptoms or disorders were counted and presented in figures. A total of 55,914 unique results were identified. After a full-text review, 1541 articles met criteria for inclusion. Analysis revealed an association between less anxiety and more fruits and vegetables, omega-3 fatty acids, “healthy” dietary patterns, caloric restriction, breakfast consumption, ketogenic diet, broad-spectrum micronutrient supplementation, zinc, magnesium and selenium, probiotics, and a range of phytochemicals. Analysis revealed an association between higher levels of anxiety and high-fat diet, inadequate tryptophan and dietary protein, high intake of sugar and refined carbohydrates, and “unhealthy” dietary patterns. Results are limited by a large percentage of animal and observational studies. Only 10% of intervention studies involved participants with anxiety disorders, limiting the applicability of the findings. High quality intervention studies involving participants with anxiety disorders are warranted. Full article
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Review
The Role of Iron and Zinc in the Treatment of ADHD among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4059; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114059 - 13 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder common from childhood to adulthood, affecting 5% to 12% among the general population in developed countries. Potential etiological factors have been identified, including genetic causes, environmental elements and epigenetic components. Nutrition is currently considered an influencing [...] Read more.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder common from childhood to adulthood, affecting 5% to 12% among the general population in developed countries. Potential etiological factors have been identified, including genetic causes, environmental elements and epigenetic components. Nutrition is currently considered an influencing factor, and several studies have explored the contribution of restriction and dietary supplements in ADHD treatments. Iron is an essential cofactor required for a number of functions, such as transport of oxygen, immune function, cellular respiration, neurotransmitter metabolism (dopamine production), and DNA synthesis. Zinc is also an essential trace element, required for cellular functions related to the metabolism of neurotransmitters, melatonin, and prostaglandins. Epidemiological studies have found that iron and zinc deficiencies are common nutritional deficits worldwide, with important roles on neurologic functions (poor memory, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness), finicky appetite, and mood changes (sadness and irritability). Altered levels of iron and zinc have been related with the aggravation and progression of ADHD. Objective: This is a systematic review focused on the contribution of iron and zinc in the progression of ADHD among children and adolescents, and how therapies including these elements are tolerated along with its effectiveness (according to PRISMA guidelines). Method: The scientific literature was screened for randomized controlled trials published between January 2000 to July 2021. The databases consulted were Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Two independent reviewers screened studies, extracted data, and assessed quality and risk of bias (CONSORT, NICE, and Cochrane checklists used). Conclusion: Nine studies met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Evidence was obtained regarding the contribution of iron-zinc supplementation in the treatment of ADHD among young individuals. The discussion was focused on how the deficits of these elements contribute to affectation on multiple ADHD correlates, and potential mechanisms explaining the mediational pathways. Evidence also suggested that treating ADHD with diet interventions might be particularly useful for specific subgroups of children and adolescents, but further investigations of the effects of these diet interventions are needed. Full article
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Review
Efficacy and Safety of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041226 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
Based on epidemiological and animal studies, the rationale for using polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as a treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) seems promising. Here, the objective was to systematically identify and critically assess the evidence from clinical trials. The primary outcome [...] Read more.
Based on epidemiological and animal studies, the rationale for using polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as a treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) seems promising. Here, the objective was to systematically identify and critically assess the evidence from clinical trials. The primary outcome was ADHD core symptoms. The secondary outcomes were behavioral difficulties, quality of life, and side effects. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library up to June 2020. The overall certainty of evidence was evaluated using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). We identified 31 relevant randomized controlled trials including 1755 patients. The results showed no effect on ADHD core symptoms rated by parents (k = 23; SMD: −0.17; 95% CI: −0.32, −0.02) or teachers (k = 10; SMD: −0.06; 95% CI: −0.31, 0.19). There was no effect on behavioral difficulties, rated by parents (k = 7; SMD: −0.02; 95% CI: −0.17, 0.14) or teachers (k = 5; SMD: −0.04; 95% CI: −0.35, 0.26). There was no effect on quality of life (SMD: 0.01; 95% CI: −0.29, 0.31). PUFA did not increase the occurrence of side effects. For now, there seems to be no benefit of PUFA in ADHD treatment; however, the certainty of evidence is questionable, and thus no conclusive guidance can be made. The protocol is registered in PROSPERO ID: CRD42020158453. Full article
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