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Review

Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

1
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Cognitive NeuroLab, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
2
Neuromodulation Unit, Institut Brain 360, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
3
Consorci d’Educació de Barcelona, Centre de Màxima Complexitat Elisenda de Montcada, Generalitat de Catalunya, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Edward D. Barker and Marilyn Cornelis
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040739
Received: 23 December 2021 / Revised: 27 January 2022 / Accepted: 8 February 2022 / Published: 10 February 2022
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD impairments arise from irregularities primarily in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) circuits within the prefrontal cortex. Due to ADHD medication’s controversial side effects and high rates of diagnosis, alternative/complementary pharmacological therapeutic approaches for ADHD are needed. Although the number of publications that study the potential effects of caffeine consumption on ADHD treatment have been accumulating over the last years, and caffeine has recently been used in ADHD research in the context of animal models, an updated evidence-based systematic review on the effects of caffeine on ADHD-like symptoms in animal studies is lacking. To provide insight and value at the preclinical level, a systematic review based on PRISMA guidelines was performed for all publications available up to 1 September 2021. Caffeine treatment increases attention and improves learning, memory, and olfactory discrimination without altering blood pressure and body weight. These results are supported at the neuronal/molecular level. Nonetheless, the role of caffeine in modulating ADHD-like symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity is contradictory, raising discrepancies that require further clarification. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that the cognitive effects of caffeine found in animal models could be translated to human ADHD, particularly during adolescence. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; impulsivity; ADHD; animal models caffeine; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; impulsivity; ADHD; animal models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vázquez, J.C.; Martin de la Torre, O.; López Palomé, J.; Redolar-Ripoll, D. Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies. Nutrients 2022, 14, 739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040739

AMA Style

Vázquez JC, Martin de la Torre O, López Palomé J, Redolar-Ripoll D. Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies. Nutrients. 2022; 14(4):739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vázquez, Javier C., Ona Martin de la Torre, Júdit López Palomé, and Diego Redolar-Ripoll. 2022. "Effects of Caffeine Consumption on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies" Nutrients 14, no. 4: 739. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040739

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