Special Issue "Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Macronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Bernard Venn
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Interests: clinical trials; carbohydrate; sugar; fructose; fibre; B vitamins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Barbara Fielding
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
Interests: fatty acids; lipoproteins; stable isotope tracers; adipose tissue; sugars

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fructose and glucose: The fuels of life or the drivers of obesity? Wherever your views lie, we welcome quality research and review manuscripts that will place these carbohydrates into the perspective of contemporary living. This is a Special Issue with a broad reach with the potential to delve into archaeology, natural history, basic science, epidemiology, physiology, genetics, interventions, and reviews. This is a great opportunity to make a contribution describing the roles of fructose and glucose in human health and disease.

Dr. Bernard Venn
Dr. Barbara Fielding
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fructose
  • Glucose
  • Carbohydrate
  • Available carbohydrate
  • Sugar
  • Sucrose
  • Starch
  • High fructose corn syrup

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Fructose Feeding on Intestinal Triacylglycerol Production and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Humans
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061781 - 15 Jun 2020
Abstract
A high fructose intake exacerbates postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, although it is unclear whether this is due to increased production or impaired clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich lipoproteins. We determined the in vivo acute effect of [...] Read more.
A high fructose intake exacerbates postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, although it is unclear whether this is due to increased production or impaired clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich lipoproteins. We determined the in vivo acute effect of fructose on postprandial intestinal and hepatic lipoprotein TAG kinetics and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Five overweight men were studied twice, 4 weeks apart. They consumed hourly mixed-nutrient drinks that were high-fructose (30% energy) or low-fructose (<2% energy) for 11 h. Oral 2H2O was administered to measure fasting and postprandial DNL. Postprandial chylomicron (CM)-TAG and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG kinetics were measured with an intravenous bolus of [2H5]-glycerol. CM and VLDL were separated by their apolipoprotein B content using antibodies. Plasma TAG (p < 0.005) and VLDL-TAG (p = 0.003) were greater, and CM-TAG production rate (PR, p = 0.046) and CM-TAG fractional catabolic rate (FCR, p = 0.073) lower when high-fructose was consumed, with no differences in VLDL-TAG kinetics. Insulin was lower (p = 0.005) and apoB48 (p = 0.039), apoB100 (p = 0.013) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) (p = 0.013) were higher after high-fructose. Postprandial hepatic fractional DNL was higher than intestinal fractional DNL with high-fructose (p = 0.043) and low-fructose (p = 0.043). Fructose consumption had no effect on the rate of intestinal or hepatic DNL. We provide the first measurement of the rate of intestinal DNL in humans. Lower CM-TAG PR and CM-TAG FCR with high-fructose consumption suggests lower clearance of CM, rather than elevated production, may contribute to elevated plasma TAG, possibly due to lower insulin-mediated stimulation of lipoprotein lipase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Giardia intestinalis and Fructose Malabsorption: A Frequent Association
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2973; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122973 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nowadays, scientific studies are emerging on the possible etiological role of intestinal parasites in functional digestive disorders. Our study was carried out with healthy individuals (control group; n = 82) and symptomatic patients with lactose or fructose malabsorption, including positive (malabsorbers; n = [...] Read more.
Nowadays, scientific studies are emerging on the possible etiological role of intestinal parasites in functional digestive disorders. Our study was carried out with healthy individuals (control group; n = 82) and symptomatic patients with lactose or fructose malabsorption, including positive (malabsorbers; n = 213) and negative (absorbers; n = 56) breath test, being analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites. A high parasitic prevalence was observed in malabsorbers (41.8%), exclusively due to single-cell eukaryotes but not helminths. Giardia intestinalis was the predominant parasite in cases of abnormal absorption (26.5%), significantly associated with fructose malabsorption and doubling the probability of developing this pathology. Within controls, Blastocystis sp. (13.4%) was almost the only parasite, being the second among patients (12.6%), and Cryptosporidium parvum, the last species of clinical relevance, was detected exclusively in two malabsorbers (0.9%). The consumption of ecological food and professions with direct contact with humans arose as risk factors of parasitism. A diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption in adulthood is the starting point, making the search for the primary cause necessary. Accurate parasitological diagnosis should be considered another tool in the clinical routine for patients with recurrent symptoms, since their condition may be reversible with adequate therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Performance Following Ingestion of Glucose–Fructose Sweeteners That Impart Different Postprandial Glycaemic Responses: A Randomised Control Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112647 - 04 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
We aimed to investigate the isolated effect of glycaemia on cognitive test performance by using beverages sweetened with two different glucose–fructose disaccharides, sucrose and isomaltulose. In a randomised crossover design, 70 healthy adults received a low-glycaemic-index (GI) isomaltulose and sucralose beverage (GI 32) [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate the isolated effect of glycaemia on cognitive test performance by using beverages sweetened with two different glucose–fructose disaccharides, sucrose and isomaltulose. In a randomised crossover design, 70 healthy adults received a low-glycaemic-index (GI) isomaltulose and sucralose beverage (GI 32) and a high-GI sucrose beverage (GI 65) on two occasions that were separated by two weeks. Following beverage ingestion, declarative memory and immediate word recall were examined at 30, 80 and 130 min. At 140 min, executive function was tested. To confirm that the glycaemic response of the test beverages matched published GI estimates, a subsample (n = 12) of the cognitive testing population (n = 70) underwent glycaemic response testing on different test days. A significantly lower value of mean (95% CI) blood glucose concentration incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was found for isomaltulose, in comparison to the blood glucose concentration iAUC value for sucrose, the difference corresponding to −44 mmol/L∙min (−70, −18), p = 0.003. The mean (95% CI) difference in numbers of correct answers or words recalled between beverages at 30, 80 and 130 min were 0.1 (−0.2, 0.5), −0.3 (−0.8, 0.2) and 0.0 (−0.5, 0.5) for declarative memory, and −0.5 (−1.4, 0.3), 0.4 (−0.4, 1.3) and −0.4 (−1.1, 0.4) for immediate free word recall. At 140 min, the mean difference in the trail-making test between beverages was −0.3 sec (−6.9, 6.3). None of these differences were statistically or clinically significant. In summary, cognitive performance was unaffected by different glycaemic responses to beverages during the postprandial period of 140 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Excessive Fructose Intake Impairs Baroreflex Sensitivity and Led to Elevated Blood Pressure in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112581 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hypertension development with an increased intake of added sugar, especially excessive fructose intake, was shown in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. However, the mechanism underlying blood pressure (BP) elevation with increased fructose intake is still unclear. First, the present [...] Read more.
Hypertension development with an increased intake of added sugar, especially excessive fructose intake, was shown in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. However, the mechanism underlying blood pressure (BP) elevation with increased fructose intake is still unclear. First, the present study showed that in rats fed 10% fructose for one week, BP and fructose/glucose levels increased in the central and peripheral nervous system. Furthermore, increased fructose intake resulted in an upregulation of fructose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. Second, consumption of excess fructose increased serum triglycerides. However, the inhibition of triglyceride production did not mitigate sympathetic nerve hyperactivity, but contributed to an insignificant decrease in BP. Finally, increased fructose intake reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and reduced baroreflex sensitivity within a week. Collectively, the data suggested that fructose intake reduced NO levels in the NTS and caused baroreflex dysfunction, which further stimulated sympathetic nerve activity and induced the development of high BP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Fructose Traces Intake and Liver Injury in Children with Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102397 - 07 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare genetic disorder of fructose metabolism due to aldolase B enzyme deficiency. Treatment consists of fructose, sorbitol, and sucrose (FSS)-free diet. We explore possible correlations between daily fructose traces intake and liver injury biomarkers on a [...] Read more.
Background: Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare genetic disorder of fructose metabolism due to aldolase B enzyme deficiency. Treatment consists of fructose, sorbitol, and sucrose (FSS)-free diet. We explore possible correlations between daily fructose traces intake and liver injury biomarkers on a long-term period, in a cohort of young patients affected by HFI. Methods: Patients’ clinical data and fructose daily intake were retrospectively collected. Correlations among fructose intake, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) percentage, liver ultrasonography, genotype were analyzed. Results: We included 48 patients whose mean follow-up was 10.3 ± 5.6 years and fructose intake 169 ± 145.4 mg/day. Eighteen patients had persistently high ALT level, nine had abnormal CDT profile, 45 had signs of liver steatosis. Fructose intake did not correlate with ALT level nor with steatosis severity, whereas it correlated with disialotransferrin percentage (R2 0.7, p < 0.0001) and tetrasialotransferrin/disialotransferrin ratio (R2 0.5, p = 0.0001). p.A150P homozygous patients had lower ALT values at diagnosis than p.A175D variant homozygotes cases (58 ± 55 IU/L vs. 143 ± 90 IU/L, p = 0.01). Conclusion: A group of HFI patients on FSS-free diet presented persistent mild hypertransaminasemia which did not correlate with fructose intake. Genotypes may influence serum liver enzyme levels. CDT profile represents a good marker to assess FSS intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Intestinal Fructose and Glucose Metabolism in Health and Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010094 - 29 Dec 2019
Abstract
The worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes have been linked to increased sugar consumption in humans. Here, we review fructose and glucose metabolism, as well as potential molecular mechanisms by which excessive sugar consumption is associated to metabolic diseases and insulin resistance in [...] Read more.
The worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes have been linked to increased sugar consumption in humans. Here, we review fructose and glucose metabolism, as well as potential molecular mechanisms by which excessive sugar consumption is associated to metabolic diseases and insulin resistance in humans. To this end, we focus on understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms of fructose and glucose transport and sensing in the intestine, the intracellular signaling effects of dietary sugar metabolism, and its impact on glucose homeostasis in health and disease. Finally, the peripheral and central effects of dietary sugars on the gut–brain axis will be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fructose and Glucose Intake and Human Health)
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