Special Issue "Dietary Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Lipids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2023 | Viewed by 6563

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Stephen Cornish
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, 117 Frank Kennedy Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Interests: exercise; nutrition; musculoskeletal health; skeletal muscle; inflammation; immunology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has long been known to modify inflammatory processes and may be used to maintain health or improve the prognosis in a variety of pathologies, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in it competing with the same enzymatic pathway as arachidonic acid (a main omega-6 fatty acid) to aid in the modification of the prostaglandins and leukotrienes produced through this pathway, this modification resulting in a less inflammatory environment if omega-3 fatty acids are metabolized. Recent work from the scientific community has identified a role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in ameliorating or treating a variety of health conditions/diseases, acting as a preventative agent, the goal of this Special Issue being to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence on the potential therapeutic and preventative nature of omega-3 supplementation.

Dr. Stephen Cornish
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • alpha-linoleic acid
  • eicosapentaenoic acid
  • docosahexaenoic acid
  • health
  • disease
  • inflammation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Dietary n3-PUFAs on Skeletal Muscle Function and Acute Exercise Response in Healthy Older Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173537 - 27 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Skeletal muscle is critical for maintaining mobility, independence, and metabolic health in older adults. However, a common feature of aging is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, which is often accompanied by mitochondrial impairments, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Exercise [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle is critical for maintaining mobility, independence, and metabolic health in older adults. However, a common feature of aging is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, which is often accompanied by mitochondrial impairments, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Exercise improves muscle strength, mitochondrial health, and cardiorespiratory fitness, but older adults often exhibit attenuated anabolic responses to acute exercise. Chronic inflammation associated with aging may contribute to this “anabolic resistance” and therapeutic interventions that target inflammation may improve exercise responsiveness. To this end, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of 6 months of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) supplementation on skeletal muscle function (mass, strength), mitochondrial physiology (respiration, ATP production, ROS generation), and acute exercise responsiveness at the level of the muscle (fractional synthesis rate) and the whole-body (amino acid kinetics) in healthy older adults. When compared with a corn oil placebo (n = 33; 71.5 ± 4.8 years), older adults treated with 4 g/day n3-PUFA (n = 30; 71.4 ± 4.5 years) exhibited modest but significant increases in muscle strength (3.1 ± 14.7% increase in placebo vs. 7.5 ± 14.1% increase in n3-PUFA; p = 0.039). These improvements in muscle strength with n3-PUFA supplementation occurred in the absence of any effects on mitochondrial function and a minor attenuation of the acute response to exercise compared to placebo. Together, these data suggest modest benefits of dietary n3-PUFAs to muscle function in healthy older adults. Future studies may elucidate whether n3-PUFA supplementation improves the exercise response in elderly individuals with co-morbidities, such as chronic inflammatory disease or sarcopenia. Full article
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Article
Synbiotic Compositions of Bacillus megaterium and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Salt Enable Self-Sufficient Production of Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112265 - 28 May 2022
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Abstract
Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) have emerged as crucial lipid mediators that confer the inflammation-resolving effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). Importantly, SPM biosynthesis is dysfunctional in various conditions, which may explain the inconclusive efficacy data from n-3 PUFA [...] Read more.
Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) have emerged as crucial lipid mediators that confer the inflammation-resolving effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). Importantly, SPM biosynthesis is dysfunctional in various conditions, which may explain the inconclusive efficacy data from n-3 PUFA interventions. To overcome the limitations of conventional n-3 PUFA supplementation strategies, we devised a composition enabling the self-sufficient production of SPM in vivo. Bacillus megaterium strains were fed highly bioavailable n-3 PUFA, followed by metabololipidomics analysis and bioinformatic assessment of the microbial genomes. All 48 tested Bacillus megaterium strains fed with the n-3 PUFA formulation produced a broad range of SPM and precursors thereof in a strain-specific manner, which may be explained by the CYP102A1 gene polymorphisms that we detected. A pilot study was performed to test if a synbiotic Bacillus megaterium/n-3 PUFA formulation increases SPM levels in vivo. Supplementation with a synbiotic capsule product led to significantly increased plasma levels of hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acids (5-HEPE, 15-HEPE, 18-HEPE) and hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acids (4-HDHA, 7-HDHA) as well as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in healthy humans. To the best of our knowledge, we report here for the first time the development and in vivo application of a self-sufficient SPM-producing formulation. Further investigations are warranted to confirm and expand these findings, which may create a new class of n-3 PUFA interventions targeting inflammation resolution. Full article
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Review

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Review
Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Telomeres—Are They the Elixir of Youth?
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183723 - 09 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Telomeres are complexes consisting of tandem repeat DNA combined with associated proteins that play a key role in protecting the ends of chromosomes and maintaining genome stability. They are considered a biological clock, as they shorten in parallel with aging. Furthermore, short telomeres [...] Read more.
Telomeres are complexes consisting of tandem repeat DNA combined with associated proteins that play a key role in protecting the ends of chromosomes and maintaining genome stability. They are considered a biological clock, as they shorten in parallel with aging. Furthermore, short telomeres are associated with several age-related diseases. However, the variability in telomere shortening independent of chronological age suggests that it is a modifiable factor. In fact, it is regulated inter alia by genetic damage, cell division, aging, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A key question remains: how can we prevent accelerated telomere attrition and subsequent premature replicative senescence? A number of studies have explored the possible impact of omega-3 fatty acids on telomere shortening. This review summarizes published cross-sectional studies, randomized controlled trials, and rodent studies investigating the role of omega-3 fatty acids in telomere biology. It also covers a broad overview of the mechanism, currently favored in the field, that explains the impact of omega-3 fatty acids on telomeres—the food compound’s ability to modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. Although the results of the studies performed to date are not consistent, the vast majority indicate a beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids on telomere length. Full article
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Review
Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Management of Osteoarthritis: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163362 - 16 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease which results in degeneration of cartilage within joints and affects approximately 13.6% of adults over 20 years of age in Canada and the United States of America. OA is characterized by a state of low-grade inflammation which leads [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease which results in degeneration of cartilage within joints and affects approximately 13.6% of adults over 20 years of age in Canada and the United States of America. OA is characterized by a state of low-grade inflammation which leads to a greater state of cellular catabolism disrupting the homeostasis of cartilage synthesis and degradation. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been postulated as a potential therapeutic treatment option for individuals with OA. Omega-3 PUFAs are recognized for their anti-inflammatory properties, which could be beneficial in the context of OA to moderate pro-inflammatory markers and cartilage loss. The purpose of this narrative review is to outline recent pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of omega-3 in the management of OA. Full article
Review
Poultry Meat and Eggs as an Alternative Source of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Human Nutrition
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091969 - 08 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The beneficial effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on human health are widely known. Humans are rather inefficient in synthesizing n-3 LC-PUFA; thus, these compounds should be supplemented in the diet. However, most Western human diets have unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratios [...] Read more.
The beneficial effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) on human health are widely known. Humans are rather inefficient in synthesizing n-3 LC-PUFA; thus, these compounds should be supplemented in the diet. However, most Western human diets have unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratios resulting from eating habits and the fact that fish sources (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA) are not sufficient (worldwide deficit ~347,956 t/y) to meet the world requirements. In this context, it is necessary to find new and sustainable sources of n-3 LC-PUFA. Poultry products can provide humans n-3 LC-PUFA due to physiological characteristics and the wide consumption of meat and eggs. The present work aims to provide a general overview of the main strategies that should be adopted during rearing and postproduction to enrich and preserve n-3 LC-PUFA in poultry products. The strategies include dietary supplementation of α-Linolenic acid (ALA) or n-3 LC-PUFA, or enhancing n-3 LC-PUFA by improving the LA (Linoleic acid)/ALA ratio and antioxidant concentrations. Moreover, factors such as genotype, rearing system, transport, and cooking processes can impact the n-3 LC-PUFA in poultry products. The use of a multifactorial view in the entire production chain allows the relevant enrichment and preservation of n-3 LC-PUFA in poultry products. Full article
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Other

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Systematic Review
The Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation on Depression in Adults with Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomised Control Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091827 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids′ concurrent benefits for cardiometabolic and mental health are equivocal. Despite lack of evidence, up to a third of adults consume Omega-3 supplements. No review has yet been published to report effect on depression in this cardiometabolic population. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids′ concurrent benefits for cardiometabolic and mental health are equivocal. Despite lack of evidence, up to a third of adults consume Omega-3 supplements. No review has yet been published to report effect on depression in this cardiometabolic population. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of double-blinded, controlled randomised trials to investigate the safety and effect of Omega-3 supplementation on depression scores in people with cardiometabolic diseases. Primary outcome was change in depression scores versus placebo. Secondary outcomes were side-effects, concurrent medication and adherence. Results: Seven trials reporting on 2575 (672 female) adults aged 39–73 were included. Omega-3 dosages ranged from 1–3 g with an intervention duration of 10–48 weeks. Six out of seven trials found no statistically or clinically significant change to depression scores compared to placebo. One trial favoured intervention (Relative Risk Reduction: 47.93%, 95% CI: 24.89–63.98%, p < 0.001). Sub-analyses showed clinically meaningful reductions in depression scores for those on antidepressants (Intervention: 20.9 (SD: 7.1), Placebo: 24.9 (SD: 8.5) p < 0.05) or with severe depression (−1.74; 95% CI −3.04 to −0.05, p < 0.05) in two separate trials. Side effects were comparable between treatment arms. Conclusions: Omega-3 supplementation is safe to use but not superior to placebo for depression in adults with concurrent cardiometabolic disease. Full article
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