Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Yoshimi Kishimoto
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Endowed Research Depeartment 'Food for Health', Ochanomizu University, Japan
Interests: food function; antioxidants; polyphenols; carotenoids; cardiovascular disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders. Dietary antioxidants are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits, vegetables, tea, and coffee, is known to be correlated with lower incidence of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and metabolic diseases.

This Special Issue entitled “Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health” welcomes the submission of either original research manuscripts or reviews of the scientific literature concerning dietary antioxidants and various health outcomes. Manuscripts can focus on the effect of dietary antioxidants on health and their health-related benefits in clinical, epidemiological or experimental studies. I sincerely hope that this Special Issue will advance our understanding of how dietary antioxidants contribute long-term health maintenance and disease prevention in humans.

Dr. Yoshimi Kishimoto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidant nutrients/non-nutrients and foods
  • Polyphenols
  • Carotenoids
  • Vitamins
  • Health
  • Disease prevention
  • Bioavailability
  • Molecular mechanism
  • Oxidative stress
  • Chronic diseases

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Astaxanthin Prevents Atrophy in Slow Muscle Fibers by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species via a Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020379 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Astaxanthin (AX) is a carotenoid that exerts potent antioxidant activity and acts in the lipid bilayer. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AX on muscle-atrophy-mediated disturbance of mitochondria, which have a lipid bilayer. Tail suspension was used to establish a muscle-atrophied [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin (AX) is a carotenoid that exerts potent antioxidant activity and acts in the lipid bilayer. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AX on muscle-atrophy-mediated disturbance of mitochondria, which have a lipid bilayer. Tail suspension was used to establish a muscle-atrophied mouse model. AX diet fed to tail-suspension mice prevented loss of muscle weight, inhibited the decrease of myofiber size, and restrained the increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in the soleus muscle. Additionally, AX improved downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and III in the soleus muscle after tail suspension. Meanwhile, AX promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating the expressions of adenosine 5′-monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) α-1, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and creatine kinase in mitochondrial (Ckmt) 2 in the soleus muscle of tail-suspension mice. To confirm the AX phenotype in the soleus muscle, we examined its effects on mitochondria using Sol8 myotubes derived from the soleus muscle. We found that AX was preferentially detected in the mitochondrial fraction; it significantly suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Sol8 myotubes. Moreover, AX inhibited the activation of caspase 3 via inhibiting the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in antimycin A–treated Sol8 myotubes. These results suggested that AX protected the functional stability of mitochondria, alleviated mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and thus, prevented muscle atrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Black Soybean Improves Vascular Function and Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Trial in Humans
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092755 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Vascular dysfunction and injurious stimuli such as oxidative stress are closely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Dietary polyphenols are reported to exert beneficial effects in reducing the risk of CVD. Black soybean has been used as a nutritionally rich food [...] Read more.
Vascular dysfunction and injurious stimuli such as oxidative stress are closely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Dietary polyphenols are reported to exert beneficial effects in reducing the risk of CVD. Black soybean has been used as a nutritionally rich food and contains abundant polyphenols in its seed coat and grain. Black soybean has many beneficial physiological activities, and its prevention effects on CVD risk were reported mainly in animal experiments. In this study, we performed a randomized, single blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial to investigate the effect of black soybean consumption on the vascular function in healthy humans. Twenty-two healthy adults aged from 30 to 60 completed the four week trial with daily consumption of about a 40 g test material cookie containing 20 g roasted black soybean powder. Body composition, vascular function, biomarkers for oxidative stress, and polyphenol contents in the urine and the plasma were measured. After ingestion of the black soybean cookie, vascular function, which was evaluated by plethysmogram using a Pulse Analyzer®, was improved and systolic blood pressure was decreased. Moreover, nitric oxide levels in plasma and urine were increased, while an oxidative stress biomarker, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine level, in the plasma was decreased accompanied by an increase in the concentration of polyphenols derived from black soybean in plasma and urine. These results suggest that the antioxidant activity of black soybean polyphenols and an increase in the nitric oxide level may contribute to the improvement of vascular function. Thus, black soybean is an attractive food material for improvement of vascular function through decreasing oxidative stress by its potent antioxidant activity and increasing the nitric oxide level in healthy humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Suppressive Effect of Shiitake Extract on Plasma Ethanol Elevation
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092647 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Alcohol is usually consumed with meals, but chronic consumption is a leading cause of alcoholic liver diseases. We investigated if shiitake extracts with a high lentinic acid content (Shiitake-H) and without lentinic acid (Shiitake-N) could suppress the elevation in plasma ethanol concentrations by [...] Read more.
Alcohol is usually consumed with meals, but chronic consumption is a leading cause of alcoholic liver diseases. We investigated if shiitake extracts with a high lentinic acid content (Shiitake-H) and without lentinic acid (Shiitake-N) could suppress the elevation in plasma ethanol concentrations by accelerating ethanol metabolism and preventing ethanol absorption from the gut. Shiitake-H and Shiitake-N suppressed the elevation in concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in plasma, and promoted the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver. However, these effects of Shiitake-H were more prominent than those of Shiitake-N. Furthermore, Shitake-H promoted ADH and ALDH activities in the stomach. We also examined the change in plasma ethanol concentration by injecting Shiitake-H or Shiitake-N into the ligated loop of the stomach or jejunum together with an ethanol solution. Shiitake-H suppressed the absorption of ethanol from the stomach and jejunum. In conclusion, Shiitake-H accelerates ethanol metabolism in the stomach and liver and inhibits ethanol absorption in the stomach and jejunum indicating that lentinic acid is a functional component in shiitake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxytyrosol as a Promising Ally in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082386 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic and highly disabling syndrome, which is still underdiagnosed, with controversial treatment. Although its aetiology is unknown, a number of studies have pointed to the involvement of altered mitochondrial metabolism, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. The intake of extra [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic and highly disabling syndrome, which is still underdiagnosed, with controversial treatment. Although its aetiology is unknown, a number of studies have pointed to the involvement of altered mitochondrial metabolism, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. The intake of extra virgin olive oil, and particularly of one of its phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol (HT), has proven to be protective in terms of redox homeostatic balance and the reduction of inflammation. In this context, using a proteomic approach with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, the present study analysed: (i) Changes in the proteome of dermal fibroblasts from a patient with FM versus a healthy control, and (ii) the effect of the treatment with a nutritional relevant dose of HT. Our results unveiled that fibroblast from FM show a differential expression in proteins involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix and oxidative metabolism that could explain the inflammatory status of these patients. Moreover, a number of these proteins results normalized by the treatment with HT. In conclusion, our results support that an HT-enriched diet could be highly beneficial in the management of FM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of 3-Month Astaxanthin Supplementation on Cardiac Function in Heart Failure Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction-A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061896 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Astaxanthin has strong antioxidant properties. We conducted a prospective pilot study on heart failure (HF) patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction to investigate improvements in cardiac function and exercise tolerance in relation to suppression of oxidative stress by 3-month astaxanthin supplementation. Oxidative [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin has strong antioxidant properties. We conducted a prospective pilot study on heart failure (HF) patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction to investigate improvements in cardiac function and exercise tolerance in relation to suppression of oxidative stress by 3-month astaxanthin supplementation. Oxidative stress markers—serum Diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were assessed before and after 3-month astaxanthin supplementation. Finally, the data of 16 HF patients were analyzed. Following 3-month astaxanthin supplementation, dROM level decreased from 385.6 ± 82.6 U.CARR to 346.5 ± 56.9 U.CARR (p = 0.041) despite no changes in BAP and urinary 8-OHdG levels. LVEF increased from 34.1 ± 8.6% to 38.0 ± 10.0% (p = 0.031) and 6MWD increased from 393.4 ± 95.9 m to 432.8 ± 93.3 m (p = 0.023). Significant relationships were observed between percent changes in dROM level and those in LVEF. In this study, following 3-month astaxanthin supplementation, suppressed oxidative stress and improved cardiac contractility and exercise tolerance were observed in HF patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Correlation between suppression of oxidative stress and improvement of cardiac contractility suggests that suppression of oxidative stress by astaxanthin supplementation had therapeutic potential to improve cardiac functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Blueberry Counteracts BV-2 Microglia Morphological and Functional Switch after LPS Challenge
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061830 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, respond to brain injury by activating and modifying their morphology. Our study arises from the great interest that has been focused on blueberry (BB) for the antioxidant and pharmacological properties displayed by its components. We [...] Read more.
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, respond to brain injury by activating and modifying their morphology. Our study arises from the great interest that has been focused on blueberry (BB) for the antioxidant and pharmacological properties displayed by its components. We analyzed the influence of hydroalcoholic BB extract in resting or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia BV-2 cells. BB exerted a protective effect against LPS-induced cytotoxicity, as indicated by cell viability. BB was also able to influence the actin cytoskeleton organization, to recover the control phenotype after LPS insult, and also to reduce LPS-driven migration. We evaluated the activity of Rho and Rac1 GTPases, which regulate both actin cytoskeletal organization and migratory capacity. LPS caused an increase in Rac1 activity, which was counteracted by BB extract. Furthermore, we demonstrated that, in the presence of BB, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α decreased, as did the immunofluorescence signal of iNOS, whereas that of Arg-1 was increased. Taken together, our results show that, during the inflammatory response, BB extract shifts the M1 polarization towards the M2 phenotype through an actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. Based on that, we might consider BB as a nutraceutical with anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Are Supplements Safe? Effects of Gallic and Ferulic Acids on In Vitro Cell Models
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061591 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Polyphenols display health-promoting properties linked to their biological activities. They are initially absorbed in the small intestine, then they are largely metabolized in the colon, whereupon they are able to exert systemic effects. The health-promoting properties of polyphenols have led to the development [...] Read more.
Polyphenols display health-promoting properties linked to their biological activities. They are initially absorbed in the small intestine, then they are largely metabolized in the colon, whereupon they are able to exert systemic effects. The health-promoting properties of polyphenols have led to the development of food supplements, which are also largely consumed by healthy people, even if data on their safety are still yet lacking. In the present paper, the content of gallic acid and ferulic acid was analyzed in two supplements, and shown to be higher than the relative contents found in fruit and flour. To evaluate the effects of these phenolic compounds on epithelial intestinal tissue, gallic and ferulic acids were added to a new in vitro model of the intestinal wall at different concentrations. The effects on viability, proliferation and migration of these compounds were respectively tested on three different cell lines (Caco2, L929 and U937), as well as on a tridimensional intestinal model, composed of a mucosal layer and a submucosa with fibroblasts and monocytes. Results indicated that gallic and ferulic acids can exert toxic effects on in vitro cell models at high concentrations, suggesting that an excessive and uncontrolled consumption of polyphenols may induce negative effects on the intestinal wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Anthocyanins of Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW-267.4 Macrophages
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041089 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) possesses various dietary compounds that improve human health. However, the functions of anthocyanins in red clover remain unclear. Here we examined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of red clover extract (RC) and red clover anthocyanins fraction (RCA) using [...] Read more.
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) possesses various dietary compounds that improve human health. However, the functions of anthocyanins in red clover remain unclear. Here we examined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of red clover extract (RC) and red clover anthocyanins fraction (RCA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages and identified dietary compounds. RC and RCA suppressed LPS-induced expression of genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1, and cyclooxygenase (COX)2. LPS-stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production also was prevented by both RC and RCA. NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) gene and phosphorylation of p47phox of NOX1 that were increased by LPS were inhibited in the cells treated with RCA. LPS-stimulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) gene expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) subunit p65 were suppressed together with reduced iNOS and COX2 proteins by RCA. Additionally, 27 polyphenols and 7 anthocyanins from RC were identified and quantified. In conclusion, RC, especially RCA, exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in vitro by regulating NF-κB and NRF2 signaling pathways, suggesting that anthocyanins in red clover are the potential candidates to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Habits and Dietary Antioxidant Intake Are Related to Socioeconomic Status in Polish Adults: A Nationwide Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020518 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate dietary habits and dietary antioxidant intake in a Polish adult population in relation to socioeconomic status. The subjects (4774) were participants in the Polish National Multi-Centre Health Examination Survey (the WOBASZ II study) performed in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate dietary habits and dietary antioxidant intake in a Polish adult population in relation to socioeconomic status. The subjects (4774) were participants in the Polish National Multi-Centre Health Examination Survey (the WOBASZ II study) performed in 2013–2014. Socioeconomic status (SES) scores were calculated by multiplying ordinal numerical values assigned to consecutive categories of education level and monthly income per capita in a family. In the Polish adult population, a higher socioeconomic status was significantly associated with a better lifestyle (more physical activity and less smoking), a better health status (lower occurrence of overweight individuals and metabolic syndrome in both genders, and lower occurrence of central obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in women), and better dietary habits, including a higher intake of dietary antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, Nut-Related Antioxidants, and Cardiovascular Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030682 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is related to fat accumulation in the arterial walls and vascular stiffening, and results in acute coronary syndrome which is commonly associated with acute myocardial infarction. Oxidative stress participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thus, the inclusion of food sources of dietary [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is related to fat accumulation in the arterial walls and vascular stiffening, and results in acute coronary syndrome which is commonly associated with acute myocardial infarction. Oxidative stress participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thus, the inclusion of food sources of dietary antioxidants, such as different kinds of nuts, may improve biomarkers related to oxidative stress, contributing to a possible reduction in atherosclerosis progression. This article has briefly highlighted the interaction between oxidative stress, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease, in addition to the effect of the consumption of different nuts and related dietary antioxidants—like polyphenols and vitamin E—on biomarkers of oxidative stress in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. Studies in vitro suggest that nuts may exert antioxidant effects by DNA repair mechanisms, lipid peroxidation prevention, modulation of the signaling pathways, and inhibition of the MAPK pathways through the suppression of NF-κB and activation of the Nrf2 pathways. Studies conducted in animal models showed the ability of dietary nuts in improving biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as oxLDL and GPx. However, clinical trials in humans have not been conclusive, especially with regards to the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Profiles of Polyphenol Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in 60,586 Women Followed for 20 Years: Results from the E3N Cohort Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071934 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Most studies on dietary polyphenol intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk have focused on total or specific subclasses of polyphenols. Since polyphenols are often consumed simultaneously, the joint effect of an intake of multiple subclasses should be explored. We aimed to identify [...] Read more.
Most studies on dietary polyphenol intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk have focused on total or specific subclasses of polyphenols. Since polyphenols are often consumed simultaneously, the joint effect of an intake of multiple subclasses should be explored. We aimed to identify profiles of the dietary polyphenol subclasses intake associated with T2D. A total of 60,586 women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l’Education Nationale (E3N) cohort study were followed for 20 years between 1993 and 2014. T2D cases were identified and validated. The individual energy-adjusted daily intakes of 15 subclasses of polyphenols were estimated at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire and the PhenolExplorer database. We used Bayesian profile regression to perform the clustering of the covariates by identifying exposure profiles of polyphenol intakes and, simultaneously, link these to T2D risk by using multivariable Cox regression models. We validated 2740 incident T2D cases during follow-up, and identified 15 distinct clusters with different intake profiles and T2D risk. When compared to the largest cluster (n = 6298 women), higher risks of T2D were observed in three of those clusters, which were composed of women with low or medium intakes of anthocyanins, dihydroflavonols, catechins, flavonols, hydroxybenzoic acids, lignans, and stilbenes. One cluster (n = 4243), characterized by higher intakes of these polyphenol subclasses, exhibited lower T2D risk when compared to the reference cluster. These results highlight the importance of a varied diet of polyphenol-rich foods such as nuts, fruits, and vegetables to prevent T2D risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
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