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Article

Astaxanthin Prevents Atrophy in Slow Muscle Fibers by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species via a Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway

1
Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528521, Japan
2
Toyo Koso Kagaku Co., Ltd., Chiba 2790041, Japan
3
Division of Pharmacology/Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
4
Department of Nutritional Physiology, Institute of Medical Nutrition, Tokushima University Medical School, Tokushima 7708503, Japan
5
Weihai Lida Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Weihai 264200, China
6
Organization for Marine Science and Technology, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 8528521, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020379
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
Astaxanthin (AX) is a carotenoid that exerts potent antioxidant activity and acts in the lipid bilayer. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AX on muscle-atrophy-mediated disturbance of mitochondria, which have a lipid bilayer. Tail suspension was used to establish a muscle-atrophied mouse model. AX diet fed to tail-suspension mice prevented loss of muscle weight, inhibited the decrease of myofiber size, and restrained the increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in the soleus muscle. Additionally, AX improved downregulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and III in the soleus muscle after tail suspension. Meanwhile, AX promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating the expressions of adenosine 5′-monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) α-1, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and creatine kinase in mitochondrial (Ckmt) 2 in the soleus muscle of tail-suspension mice. To confirm the AX phenotype in the soleus muscle, we examined its effects on mitochondria using Sol8 myotubes derived from the soleus muscle. We found that AX was preferentially detected in the mitochondrial fraction; it significantly suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Sol8 myotubes. Moreover, AX inhibited the activation of caspase 3 via inhibiting the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol in antimycin A–treated Sol8 myotubes. These results suggested that AX protected the functional stability of mitochondria, alleviated mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and thus, prevented muscle atrophy. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; muscle atrophy; mitochondria; oxidative stress astaxanthin; muscle atrophy; mitochondria; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, L.; Miyaji, N.; Yang, M.; Mills, E.M.; Taniyama, S.; Uchida, T.; Nikawa, T.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Tachibana, K.; Hirasaka, K. Astaxanthin Prevents Atrophy in Slow Muscle Fibers by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species via a Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway. Nutrients 2021, 13, 379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020379

AMA Style

Sun L, Miyaji N, Yang M, Mills EM, Taniyama S, Uchida T, Nikawa T, Li J, Shi J, Tachibana K, Hirasaka K. Astaxanthin Prevents Atrophy in Slow Muscle Fibers by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species via a Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020379

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Luchuanyang, Nobuyuki Miyaji, Min Yang, Edward M. Mills, Shigeto Taniyama, Takayuki Uchida, Takeshi Nikawa, Jifeng Li, Jie Shi, Katsuyasu Tachibana, and Katsuya Hirasaka. 2021. "Astaxanthin Prevents Atrophy in Slow Muscle Fibers by Inhibiting Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species via a Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 379. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020379

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