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Article

Are Supplements Safe? Effects of Gallic and Ferulic Acids on In Vitro Cell Models

1
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum–University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum–University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061591
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
Polyphenols display health-promoting properties linked to their biological activities. They are initially absorbed in the small intestine, then they are largely metabolized in the colon, whereupon they are able to exert systemic effects. The health-promoting properties of polyphenols have led to the development of food supplements, which are also largely consumed by healthy people, even if data on their safety are still yet lacking. In the present paper, the content of gallic acid and ferulic acid was analyzed in two supplements, and shown to be higher than the relative contents found in fruit and flour. To evaluate the effects of these phenolic compounds on epithelial intestinal tissue, gallic and ferulic acids were added to a new in vitro model of the intestinal wall at different concentrations. The effects on viability, proliferation and migration of these compounds were respectively tested on three different cell lines (Caco2, L929 and U937), as well as on a tridimensional intestinal model, composed of a mucosal layer and a submucosa with fibroblasts and monocytes. Results indicated that gallic and ferulic acids can exert toxic effects on in vitro cell models at high concentrations, suggesting that an excessive and uncontrolled consumption of polyphenols may induce negative effects on the intestinal wall. View Full-Text
Keywords: supplements; gallic acid; ferulic acid; intestinal wall models supplements; gallic acid; ferulic acid; intestinal wall models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Truzzi, F.; Valerii, M.C.; Tibaldi, C.; Zhang, Y.; Abduazizova, V.; Spisni, E.; Dinelli, G. Are Supplements Safe? Effects of Gallic and Ferulic Acids on In Vitro Cell Models. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061591

AMA Style

Truzzi F, Valerii MC, Tibaldi C, Zhang Y, Abduazizova V, Spisni E, Dinelli G. Are Supplements Safe? Effects of Gallic and Ferulic Acids on In Vitro Cell Models. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Truzzi, Francesca; Valerii, Maria C.; Tibaldi, Camilla; Zhang, Yanxin; Abduazizova, Veronika; Spisni, Enzo; Dinelli, Giovanni. 2020. "Are Supplements Safe? Effects of Gallic and Ferulic Acids on In Vitro Cell Models" Nutrients 12, no. 6: 1591. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061591

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