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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Anthocyanins of Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW-267.4 Macrophages

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
2
Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA
3
Food and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041089
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Human Health)
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) possesses various dietary compounds that improve human health. However, the functions of anthocyanins in red clover remain unclear. Here we examined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of red clover extract (RC) and red clover anthocyanins fraction (RCA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages and identified dietary compounds. RC and RCA suppressed LPS-induced expression of genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1, and cyclooxygenase (COX)2. LPS-stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production also was prevented by both RC and RCA. NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) gene and phosphorylation of p47phox of NOX1 that were increased by LPS were inhibited in the cells treated with RCA. LPS-stimulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) gene expression and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) subunit p65 were suppressed together with reduced iNOS and COX2 proteins by RCA. Additionally, 27 polyphenols and 7 anthocyanins from RC were identified and quantified. In conclusion, RC, especially RCA, exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in vitro by regulating NF-κB and NRF2 signaling pathways, suggesting that anthocyanins in red clover are the potential candidates to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: red clover; anthocyanins; anti-inflammation; antioxidation red clover; anthocyanins; anti-inflammation; antioxidation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.G.; Brownmiller, C.R.; Lee, S.-O.; Kang, H.W. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Anthocyanins of Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW-267.4 Macrophages. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041089

AMA Style

Lee SG, Brownmiller CR, Lee S-O, Kang HW. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Anthocyanins of Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW-267.4 Macrophages. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Sang G.; Brownmiller, Cindi R.; Lee, Sun-Ok; Kang, Hye W. 2020. "Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Anthocyanins of Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW-267.4 Macrophages" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1089. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041089

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