Special Issue "Diet and Vascular Function"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Glenn Gaesser
Website
Guest Editor
Arizona State University at the Downtown Phoenix Campus, College of Health Solutions, Phoenix, United States
Interests: exercise physiology; metabolism; obesity; exercise and diet interactions
Dr. Siddhartha Angadi
Website
Guest Editor
Arizona State University at the Downtown Phoenix Campus, College of Health Solutions, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
Interests: cardiovascular function; diet and heart failure; exercise and heart failure

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diet is inextricably linked to cardiovascular health, morbidity and mortality. Dietary practices can have significant acute and chronic effects on the vascular tree and can lay the groundwork for future cardiovascular disease or for prevention of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this special issue, “Diet and Vascular Function,” is to address significant gaps in our knowledge of the effects of different dietary patterns/practices on vascular function. The editors encourage submissions focusing on therapeutic or pathophysiological effects of diet, including dietary supplements, on the vascular tree and on macro/microvascular function. Research may focus on acute impact of meals or long-term effects of sustained dietary intervention.

Prof. Glenn Gaesser
Dr. Siddhartha Angadi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Endothelial function
  • Micro/Microvascular function
  • Diet
  • Supplements
  • Micro/Macronutrients
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Vascular biomarkers
  • Vasomotor tone

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Low-Fat and High-Fat Meals, with and without Dietary Fiber, on Postprandial Endothelial Function, Triglyceridemia, and Glycemia in Adolescents
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112626 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The consumption of fiber-rich foods may negate the deleterious effects of high-fat meals on postprandial triglyceridemia and endothelial function. Despite supportive data in adults, little is known about the effects of high-fat and high-fiber foods on cardiovascular health parameters in pediatric populations. In [...] Read more.
The consumption of fiber-rich foods may negate the deleterious effects of high-fat meals on postprandial triglyceridemia and endothelial function. Despite supportive data in adults, little is known about the effects of high-fat and high-fiber foods on cardiovascular health parameters in pediatric populations. In this crossover trial, male and female adolescents (n = 10; 14.1 + 2.6 years; range 10–17 years) consumed (1) low-fat, low-fiber, (2) low-fat, high-fiber, (3) high-fat, low-fiber, and (4) high-fat, high-fiber breakfast meals in randomized order, each following an overnight fast. Baseline and 4 h post-meal blood was obtained for determination of glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Postprandial FMD was not significantly changed after any meal. However, regression analyses revealed a significant inverse relationship between the change in 4 h triglyceride concentration and change in 4 h FMD for the high-fat, low-fiber meal (β = −0.087; 95% CI = −0.138 to −0.037; p = 0.001) that was no longer significant in the high-fat, high-fiber meal (β = −0.044; 95% CI = −0.117 to 0.029; p = 0.227). Interpretation of these analyses must be qualified by acknowledging that between-meal comparison revealed that the two regression lines were not statistically different (p = 0.226). Addition of high-fiber cereal to the high-fat meal also reduced 4 h postprandial triglyceride increases by ~50% (p = 0.056). A high-fiber breakfast cereal did not attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of a low-fat meal. While further work is needed to confirm these results in larger cohorts, our findings indicate the potential importance of cereal fiber in blunting the inverse relationship between postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and FMD after consumption of a high-fat meal in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Supplementation with Silicon-Enriched Spirulina Improves Arterial Remodeling and Function in Hypertensive Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112574 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Vascular aging is characterized by increase in arterial stiffness and remodeling of the arterial wall with a loss of elastic properties. Silicon is an essential trace element highly present in arteries. It is involved in the constitution and stabilization of elastin fibers. The [...] Read more.
Vascular aging is characterized by increase in arterial stiffness and remodeling of the arterial wall with a loss of elastic properties. Silicon is an essential trace element highly present in arteries. It is involved in the constitution and stabilization of elastin fibers. The nutritional supply and bioavailability of silicon are often inadequate. Spirulina (Sp), micro algae have recognized nutritional properties and are able to incorporate minerals in a bioavailable form. We evaluated the effects of nutritional supplementation with silicon-enriched spirulina (SpSi) on arterial system structure and function in hypertension. Experiments were performed on hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats supplemented with SpSi or Sp over a period of three months. Arterial pressure, vascular function and morphometric parameters of thoracic aorta were analyzed. SpSi supplementation lowered arterial pressure in SHR and minimized morphometric alterations induced by hypertension. Aortic wall thickness and elastic fibers fragmentation were partially reversed. Collagen and elastin levels were increased in association with extracellular matrix degradation decrease. Vascular reactivity was improved with better contractile and vasorelaxant responses to various agonists. No changes were observed in SHR supplemented with Sp. The beneficial effects of SpSi supplementation evidenced here, may be attributable to Si enrichment and offer interesting opportunities to prevent cardiovascular risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Glycemic Index and Cereal Fiber on Postprandial Endothelial Function, Glycemia, and Insulinemia in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102387 - 06 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Both glycemic index and dietary fiber are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, which may be related in part to postprandial vascular effects. We examined the effects of both glycemic index (GI) and dietary (mainly cereal) fiber on postprandial endothelial function. Eleven adults (5 [...] Read more.
Both glycemic index and dietary fiber are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, which may be related in part to postprandial vascular effects. We examined the effects of both glycemic index (GI) and dietary (mainly cereal) fiber on postprandial endothelial function. Eleven adults (5 men; 6 women; age = 42.4 ± 16.1 years; weight = 70.5 ± 10.7 kg; height = 173.7 ± 8.7 cm) consumed four different breakfast meals on separate, randomized occasions: High-Fiber, Low-GI (HF-LGI: Fiber = 20.4 g; GI = 44); Low-Fiber, Low-GI (LF-LGI: Fiber = 4.3 g; GI = 43); Low-Fiber, High-GI (LF-HGI: Fiber = 3.6 g; GI = 70); High-Fiber, High-GI (HF-HGI: Fiber = 20.3 g; GI = 71). Meals were equal in total kcal (~600) and macronutrient composition (~90 g digestible carbohydrate; ~21 g protein; ~15 g fat). The HF-LGI meal resulted in a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) 4 h after meal ingestion (7.8% ± 5.9% to 13.2% ± 5.5%; p = 0.02). FMD was not changed after the other meals. Regardless of fiber content, low-GI meals resulted in ~9% lower 4-h glucose area under curve (AUC) (p < 0.05). The HF-LGI meal produced the lowest 4-h insulin AUC, which was ~43% lower than LF-HGI and HF-HGI (p < 0.001), and 28% lower than LF-LGI (p = 0.02). We conclude that in healthy adults, a meal with low GI and high in cereal fiber enhances postprandial endothelial function. Although the effect of a low-GI meal on reducing postprandial glucose AUC was independent of fiber, the effect of a low-GI meal on reducing postprandial insulin AUC was augmented by cereal fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Fat Diet Designed for Weight Loss But Not Weight Maintenance Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Arteriolar Vasodilation in Obese Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061339 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Obesity is associated with microvascular dysfunction. While low-fat diet improves cardiovascular risk, its contributions on microvascular function, independent of weight loss, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in microvessels is improved by low-fat diets designed for weight loss [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with microvascular dysfunction. While low-fat diet improves cardiovascular risk, its contributions on microvascular function, independent of weight loss, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in microvessels is improved by low-fat diets designed for weight loss (LFWL) compared to low-fat weight maintenance (LFWM) diet. Obese adults were randomly assigned to either a LFWL diet (n = 11) or LFWM diet (n = 10) for six weeks. Microvessels were obtained from gluteal subcutaneous fat biopsies before and after the intervention for vascular reactivity measurements to acetylcholine (Ach) and flow, with and without L-NAME or indomethacin. Vascular and serum NO and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured. LFWL diet increased flow-induced (FID) and ACh-induced dilation (AChID); an effect that was inhibited by L-NAME. Conversely, LFWM diet did not affect FID or AChID. Indomethacin improved FID and AChID in the baseline and this effect was minimized in response to both diets. Serum NO or CRP did not change in response to either diet. In conclusion, LFWL diet improves microvascular reactivity compared to LFWM diet and increased vascular NO contribution to the improved microvascular dilation. These data suggest that weight reduction on low fat diet is critical for microvascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation of the Superficial Femoral Artery in Healthy Older Males
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050954 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Aging is often associated with reduced leg blood flow, increased arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which are related to declining nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and passive leg movement (PLM) hyperaemia are two techniques used to measure NO-dependent [...] Read more.
Aging is often associated with reduced leg blood flow, increased arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which are related to declining nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and passive leg movement (PLM) hyperaemia are two techniques used to measure NO-dependent vascular function. We hypothesised that acute dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation would improve NO bioavailability, leg FMD, and PLM hyperaemia. Fifteen healthy older men (69 ± 4 years) attended two experiment sessions and consumed either 140 mL of concentrated beetroot juice (800 mg NO3) or placebo (NO3-depleted beetroot juice) in a randomised, double blind, cross-over design study. Plasma nitrite (NO2) and NO3, blood pressure (BP), augmentation index (AIx75), pulse wave velocity (PWV), FMD of the superficial femoral artery, and PLM hyperaemia were measured immediately before and 2.5 h after consuming NO3 and placebo. Placebo had no effect but NO3 led to an 8.6-fold increase in plasma NO2, which was accompanied by an increase in FMD (NO3: +1.18 ± 0.94% vs. placebo: 0.23 ± 1.13%, p = 0.002), and a reduction in AIx75 (NO3: −8.7 ± 11.6% vs. placebo: −4.6 ± 5.5%, p = 0.027). PLM hyperaemia, BP, and PWV were unchanged during both trials. This study showed that a dose of dietary NO3 improved NO bioavailability and enhanced endothelial function as measured by femoral artery FMD. These findings provide insight into the specific central and peripheral vascular responses to dietary NO3 supplementation in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Males Renders the Endothelium Susceptible to Hyperglycemia-Induced Damage, An Exploratory Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030489 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Postprandial hyperglycemia has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction and/or damage may be one of the mechanisms through which this occurs. In this exploratory study, we determined whether acute glucose ingestion would increase markers of endothelial damage/activation and impair [...] Read more.
Postprandial hyperglycemia has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction and/or damage may be one of the mechanisms through which this occurs. In this exploratory study, we determined whether acute glucose ingestion would increase markers of endothelial damage/activation and impair endothelial function before and after a short-term low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HFD) designed to induce relative glucose intolerance. Nine healthy young males (body mass index 23.2 ± 2 kg/m2) consumed a 75 g glucose drink before and <24 hours after consuming seven days of an iso-energetic HFD consisting of ~70% energy from fat, ~10% energy from carbohydrates, and ~20% energy from protein. CD31+/CD42b- and CD62E+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were enumerated at fasting, 1 hour (1 h), and 2 hours (2 h) post-consumption of the glucose drink. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness, and diameter, velocity, and flow of the common and internal carotid, and vertebral arteries were assessed in the fasting state and 1 h post glucose consumption. After the HFD, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were elevated at 1 h compared to 2 h (p = 0.037), with a tendency for an increase above fasting (p = 0.06) only post-HFD. CD62E EMPs followed the same pattern with increased concentration at 1 h compared to 2 h (p = 0.005) post-HFD, with a tendency to be increased above fasting levels (p = 0.078). FMD was reduced at 1 h post glucose consumption both pre- (p = 0.01) and post-HFD (p = 0.005). There was also a reduction in FMD in the fasting state following the HFD (p = 0.02). In conclusion, one week of low-carbohydrate high-fat feeding that leads to a relative impairment in glucose homeostasis in healthy young adults may predispose the endothelium to hyperglycemia-induced damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Curcumin Inhibits Age-Related Vascular Changes in Aged Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101476 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Inhibiting the onset of arteriosclerotic disease, which has been increasing due to the westernized diet and aging, is a significant social challenge. Curcumin, a type of polyphenol, has anti-oxidative effects and anti-inflammatory action and is expected to treat and to have prophylactic effects [...] Read more.
Inhibiting the onset of arteriosclerotic disease, which has been increasing due to the westernized diet and aging, is a significant social challenge. Curcumin, a type of polyphenol, has anti-oxidative effects and anti-inflammatory action and is expected to treat and to have prophylactic effects on different diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term administration of curcumin on vascular aging and chronic inflammation—the causes of arteriosclerotic disease. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) or 0.1% curcumin-mixed HFD (HFD + Cu) until 80 weeks old (n = 20 for each group). After the breeding, we examined the expression of antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), oxidative stress, vascular aging, and inflammatory changes in the aorta. In the HFD group, oxidative stress increased with decreased sirt1 expression in the aorta followed by increased senescent cells and enhanced inflammation. Whereas in the HFD + Cu group, HO-1 was induced in the aorta with the suppression of oxidative stress. Additionally, it was shown that sirt1 expression in the aorta in the HFD + Cu group remained at a level comparable to that of the 8-week-old mice with suppression of increased senescent cells and enhanced inflammation. Consequently, disorders associated with HFD were resolved. These results suggest that curcumin might be a food with a prophylactic function against arteriosclerotic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Coffee and Endothelial Function: A Coffee Paradox?
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092104 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Coffee is a popular beverage throughout the world. Coffee contains various chemical compounds (e.g., caffeine, chlorogenic acids, hydroxyhydroquinone, kahweol, cafestol, and complex chemical mixtures). Caffeine is also the most widely consumed pharmacological substance in the world and is included in various beverages (e.g., [...] Read more.
Coffee is a popular beverage throughout the world. Coffee contains various chemical compounds (e.g., caffeine, chlorogenic acids, hydroxyhydroquinone, kahweol, cafestol, and complex chemical mixtures). Caffeine is also the most widely consumed pharmacological substance in the world and is included in various beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks), products containing chocolate, and drugs. The effects of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular diseases remain controversial. It is well known that there are J-curve-type or U-curve-type associations of coffee consumption with cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke. However, there is little information on the direct and indirect effects of coffee consumption on endothelial function in humans. It is likely that the coffee paradox or caffeine paradox exists the association of coffee intake with cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular outcomes, and endothelial function. This review focusses on the effects of coffee and caffeine on endothelial function from molecular mechanisms to clinical perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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