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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Glycemic Index and Cereal Fiber on Postprandial Endothelial Function, Glycemia, and Insulinemia in Healthy Adults

1
College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
2
Soriant Solutions, Roswell, GA 30075, USA
3
Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102387
Received: 3 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
Both glycemic index and dietary fiber are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, which may be related in part to postprandial vascular effects. We examined the effects of both glycemic index (GI) and dietary (mainly cereal) fiber on postprandial endothelial function. Eleven adults (5 men; 6 women; age = 42.4 ± 16.1 years; weight = 70.5 ± 10.7 kg; height = 173.7 ± 8.7 cm) consumed four different breakfast meals on separate, randomized occasions: High-Fiber, Low-GI (HF-LGI: Fiber = 20.4 g; GI = 44); Low-Fiber, Low-GI (LF-LGI: Fiber = 4.3 g; GI = 43); Low-Fiber, High-GI (LF-HGI: Fiber = 3.6 g; GI = 70); High-Fiber, High-GI (HF-HGI: Fiber = 20.3 g; GI = 71). Meals were equal in total kcal (~600) and macronutrient composition (~90 g digestible carbohydrate; ~21 g protein; ~15 g fat). The HF-LGI meal resulted in a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) 4 h after meal ingestion (7.8% ± 5.9% to 13.2% ± 5.5%; p = 0.02). FMD was not changed after the other meals. Regardless of fiber content, low-GI meals resulted in ~9% lower 4-h glucose area under curve (AUC) (p < 0.05). The HF-LGI meal produced the lowest 4-h insulin AUC, which was ~43% lower than LF-HGI and HF-HGI (p < 0.001), and 28% lower than LF-LGI (p = 0.02). We conclude that in healthy adults, a meal with low GI and high in cereal fiber enhances postprandial endothelial function. Although the effect of a low-GI meal on reducing postprandial glucose AUC was independent of fiber, the effect of a low-GI meal on reducing postprandial insulin AUC was augmented by cereal fiber. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow-mediated dilation; glucose; insulin; insoluble fiber; vascular; cardiovascular disease flow-mediated dilation; glucose; insulin; insoluble fiber; vascular; cardiovascular disease
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Gaesser, G.A.; Rodriguez, J.; Patrie, J.T.; Whisner, C.M.; Angadi, S.S. Effects of Glycemic Index and Cereal Fiber on Postprandial Endothelial Function, Glycemia, and Insulinemia in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2387.

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