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Open AccessArticle

Low-Fat Diet Designed for Weight Loss But Not Weight Maintenance Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Arteriolar Vasodilation in Obese Adults

1
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2
Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3
Cardiovascular Center, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
4
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061339
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
Obesity is associated with microvascular dysfunction. While low-fat diet improves cardiovascular risk, its contributions on microvascular function, independent of weight loss, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in microvessels is improved by low-fat diets designed for weight loss (LFWL) compared to low-fat weight maintenance (LFWM) diet. Obese adults were randomly assigned to either a LFWL diet (n = 11) or LFWM diet (n = 10) for six weeks. Microvessels were obtained from gluteal subcutaneous fat biopsies before and after the intervention for vascular reactivity measurements to acetylcholine (Ach) and flow, with and without L-NAME or indomethacin. Vascular and serum NO and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured. LFWL diet increased flow-induced (FID) and ACh-induced dilation (AChID); an effect that was inhibited by L-NAME. Conversely, LFWM diet did not affect FID or AChID. Indomethacin improved FID and AChID in the baseline and this effect was minimized in response to both diets. Serum NO or CRP did not change in response to either diet. In conclusion, LFWL diet improves microvascular reactivity compared to LFWM diet and increased vascular NO contribution to the improved microvascular dilation. These data suggest that weight reduction on low fat diet is critical for microvascular health. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-fat diet; weight loss; hypocaloric; isocaloric; obesity; microvasculature; nitric oxide; cardiovascular; flow-induced dilation; acetylcholine low-fat diet; weight loss; hypocaloric; isocaloric; obesity; microvasculature; nitric oxide; cardiovascular; flow-induced dilation; acetylcholine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahmoud, A.M.; Hwang, C.-L.; Szczurek, M.R.; Bian, J.-T.; Ranieri, C.; Gutterman, D.D.; Phillips, S.A. Low-Fat Diet Designed for Weight Loss But Not Weight Maintenance Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Arteriolar Vasodilation in Obese Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1339.

AMA Style

Mahmoud AM, Hwang C-L, Szczurek MR, Bian J-T, Ranieri C, Gutterman DD, Phillips SA. Low-Fat Diet Designed for Weight Loss But Not Weight Maintenance Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Arteriolar Vasodilation in Obese Adults. Nutrients. 2019; 11(6):1339.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahmoud, Abeer M.; Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Szczurek, Mary R.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Ranieri, Christine; Gutterman, David D.; Phillips, Shane A. 2019. "Low-Fat Diet Designed for Weight Loss But Not Weight Maintenance Improves Nitric Oxide-Dependent Arteriolar Vasodilation in Obese Adults" Nutrients 11, no. 6: 1339.

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