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Short-Term Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Males Renders the Endothelium Susceptible to Hyperglycemia-Induced Damage, An Exploratory Analysis

1
School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
2
Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030489
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
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PDF [688 KB, uploaded 26 February 2019]
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Abstract

Postprandial hyperglycemia has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction and/or damage may be one of the mechanisms through which this occurs. In this exploratory study, we determined whether acute glucose ingestion would increase markers of endothelial damage/activation and impair endothelial function before and after a short-term low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HFD) designed to induce relative glucose intolerance. Nine healthy young males (body mass index 23.2 ± 2 kg/m2) consumed a 75 g glucose drink before and <24 hours after consuming seven days of an iso-energetic HFD consisting of ~70% energy from fat, ~10% energy from carbohydrates, and ~20% energy from protein. CD31+/CD42b- and CD62E+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were enumerated at fasting, 1 hour (1 h), and 2 hours (2 h) post-consumption of the glucose drink. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness, and diameter, velocity, and flow of the common and internal carotid, and vertebral arteries were assessed in the fasting state and 1 h post glucose consumption. After the HFD, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were elevated at 1 h compared to 2 h (p = 0.037), with a tendency for an increase above fasting (p = 0.06) only post-HFD. CD62E EMPs followed the same pattern with increased concentration at 1 h compared to 2 h (p = 0.005) post-HFD, with a tendency to be increased above fasting levels (p = 0.078). FMD was reduced at 1 h post glucose consumption both pre- (p = 0.01) and post-HFD (p = 0.005). There was also a reduction in FMD in the fasting state following the HFD (p = 0.02). In conclusion, one week of low-carbohydrate high-fat feeding that leads to a relative impairment in glucose homeostasis in healthy young adults may predispose the endothelium to hyperglycemia-induced damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-fat diet; microparticles; EMPs; flow-mediated dilation; FMD high-fat diet; microparticles; EMPs; flow-mediated dilation; FMD
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Durrer, C.; Lewis, N.; Wan, Z.; Ainslie, P.N.; Jenkins, N.T.; Little, J.P. Short-Term Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Males Renders the Endothelium Susceptible to Hyperglycemia-Induced Damage, An Exploratory Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 489.

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