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Open AccessReview

Coffee and Endothelial Function: A Coffee Paradox?

1
Department of Cardiovascular Regeneration and Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
2
Division of Regeneration and Medicine, Medical Center for Translational and Clinical Research, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092104
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 28 August 2019 / Accepted: 1 September 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Vascular Function)
Coffee is a popular beverage throughout the world. Coffee contains various chemical compounds (e.g., caffeine, chlorogenic acids, hydroxyhydroquinone, kahweol, cafestol, and complex chemical mixtures). Caffeine is also the most widely consumed pharmacological substance in the world and is included in various beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks), products containing chocolate, and drugs. The effects of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular diseases remain controversial. It is well known that there are J-curve-type or U-curve-type associations of coffee consumption with cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke. However, there is little information on the direct and indirect effects of coffee consumption on endothelial function in humans. It is likely that the coffee paradox or caffeine paradox exists the association of coffee intake with cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular outcomes, and endothelial function. This review focusses on the effects of coffee and caffeine on endothelial function from molecular mechanisms to clinical perspectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; caffeine; endothelial function; nitric oxide coffee; caffeine; endothelial function; nitric oxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Higashi, Y. Coffee and Endothelial Function: A Coffee Paradox? Nutrients 2019, 11, 2104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092104

AMA Style

Higashi Y. Coffee and Endothelial Function: A Coffee Paradox? Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):2104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092104

Chicago/Turabian Style

Higashi, Yukihito. 2019. "Coffee and Endothelial Function: A Coffee Paradox?" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2104. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092104

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