Special Issue "Nanotech for Medicine and Pharmacy: Selected Papers from Nano Ostrava Meeting 2019"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Josef Jampilek
Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
2. Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: medicinal chemistry; drug design; structure-activity relationships; pharmaceutical analysis; polymorphism; drug bioavailability; ADME; nanoparticles; nanoformulations; controlled/targeted delivery
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Daniela Placha

Guest Editor
1. Nanotechnology Centre, VSB–Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
2. Enet Centre, VSb-Technical VSB–Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: organic chemistry; organic analysis; mass spectrometry; nanoparticles; antimicrobial materials; polymer nanocomposites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The traditional international biennial symposium “Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Meeting”, known as the NanoOstrava Meeting (NOM), is in its 6th year. We would like to invite you to the symposium, which will be held at the VSB–TU of Ostrava in the Czech Republic on 13–16 May, 2019. The symposium is organized in cooperation with scientists from the Nanotechnology Centre, VSB–Technical University of Ostrava and the Institute of Geonics of the Czech Academy of Sciences. These high-quality series of meetings cover all fields of nanoscience.

The aim of NOM-2019 is to support cooperation between scientists and to develop a platform to facilitate open discussions between scientists, students and industry representatives from European and other countries with an interest in the development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology. Excellent speakers from all over the world will present their results within individual sections of NOM-2019. For all details, please see http://www.nanoostrava.cz.

Participants of the conference are cordially invited to contribute original research papers or reviews to this Special Issue of Nanomaterials.

Prof. Dr. Josef Jampilek
Dr. Daniela Placha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural and synthetic nanoparticles
  • Preparation of nanostructured materials
  • Biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials
  • Nanocoatings and functionalization of nanomaterials
  • Techniques for characterization in nanotechnology
  • Testing methods for nanomaterials
  • Nano drug delivery and therapeutics
  • Cancer nanotechnology
  • Nanopharmacology
  • Nanotoxicology
  • Biosensors, diagnostics and bioimaging
  • Antimicrobial nanomaterials
  • Biomaterials
  • Nanocosmetics
  • Nanobiotechnology

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Initiator Concentration on Selected Properties on Poly-N-Vinylcaprolactam Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111577 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
The thermosensitive polymers of N-vinylcaprolactam P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 were synthesized via the surfactant free precipitation polymerization (SFPP) at 70 °C in the presence of cationic initiator 2,2’-azobis[2-methylpropionamidine] dihydrochloride (AMPA). The influence of various concentrations of initiator AMPA on particle [...] Read more.
The thermosensitive polymers of N-vinylcaprolactam P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 were synthesized via the surfactant free precipitation polymerization (SFPP) at 70 °C in the presence of cationic initiator 2,2’-azobis[2-methylpropionamidine] dihydrochloride (AMPA). The influence of various concentrations of initiator AMPA on particle size, aggregation and lower critical temperature solution (LCST) was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement. The conductivity was measured in the course of the synthesis and during temperature decrease of the reaction mixtures. The polymers were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), 1H NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal parameters of the degradations process were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) under non-isothermal conditions in N2 atmosphere. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD).The hydrodynamic diameter (HD), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP) were measured in aqueous dispersions of the synthesized polymers in temperature 18–45 °C. HD and PDI values at 18 °C were 137.23 ± 67.65 nm (PDI = 0.53 ± 0.18), 83.40 ± 74.46 nm (PDI = 0.35 ± 0.08), 22.11 ± 0.29 nm (PDI = 0.45 ± 0.05), 29.27 ± 0.50 nm (PDI = 0.41 ± 0.04), 39.18 ± 0.57 nm (PDI = 0.38 ± 0.01) for P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5, respectively. The aqueous solutions of the obtained polymers at 18–45 °C had a positive charge. ZP’s for P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 polymers at 18 °C were 11.64 ± 4.27 mV, 12.71 ± 3.56 mV, 3.24 ± 0.10 mV, 0.77 ± 0.28 mV, 1.78 ± 0.56 mV respectively. The LCST range was between 32 and 38 °C. We conclude that the concentration of initiator affects the size of obtained polymeric spheres and theirs LCST. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Foliar Spray Application of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Quantitative, Nutritional, and Physiological Parameters of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) under Field Conditions
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111559 - 03 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
It has been shown that the foliar application of inorganic nano-materials on cereal plants during their growth cycle enhances the rate of plant productivity by providing a micro-nutrient source. We therefore studied the effects of foliarly applied ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Setaria [...] Read more.
It has been shown that the foliar application of inorganic nano-materials on cereal plants during their growth cycle enhances the rate of plant productivity by providing a micro-nutrient source. We therefore studied the effects of foliarly applied ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on Setaria italica L. foxtail millet’s quantitative, nutritional, and physiological parameters. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the ZnO NPs have an average particle size under 20 nm and dominant spherically shaped morphology. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry then confirmed ZnO NP homogeneity, and X-ray diffraction verified their high crystalline and wurtzite-structure symmetry. Although plant height, thousand grain weight, and grain yield quantitative parameters did not differ statistically between ZnO NP-treated and untreated plants, the ZnO NP-treated plant grains had significantly higher oil and total nitrogen contents and significantly lower crop water stress index (CWSI). This highlights that the slow-releasing nano-fertilizer improves plant physiological properties and various grain nutritional parameters, and its application is therefore especially beneficial for progressive nanomaterial-based industries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of the Effect of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Sage Leaves (Salvia officinalis L.) on Germinated Plants of Maize (Zea mays L.)
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111550 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
AgNPs have attracted considerable attention in many applications including industrial use, and their antibacterial properties have been widely investigated. Due to the green synthesis process employed, the nanoparticle surface can be coated with molecules with biologically important characteristics. It has been reported that [...] Read more.
AgNPs have attracted considerable attention in many applications including industrial use, and their antibacterial properties have been widely investigated. Due to the green synthesis process employed, the nanoparticle surface can be coated with molecules with biologically important characteristics. It has been reported that increased use of nanoparticles elevates the risk of their release into the environment. However, little is known about the behaviour of AgNPs in the eco-environment. In this study, the effect of green synthesized AgNPs on germinated plants of maize was examined. The effects on germination, basic growth and physiological parameters of the plants were monitored. Moreover, the effect of AgNPs was compared with that of Ag(I) ions in the form of AgNO3 solution. It was found that the growth inhibition of the above-ground parts of plants was about 40%, and AgNPs exhibited a significant effect on photosynthetic pigments. Significant differences in the following parameters were observed: weights of the caryopses and fresh weight (FW) of primary roots after 96 h of exposure to Ag(I) ions and AgNPs compared to the control and between Ag compounds. In addition, the coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) between the control and the AgNPs varied and that between the Ag(I) ions and AgNPs was also different. Phytotoxicity was proved in the following sequence: control < AgNPs < Ag(I) ions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tuning the Properties of Nanogel Surfaces by Grafting Charged Alkylamine Brushes
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111514 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
Nanogels are chemically crosslinked polymeric nanoparticles endowed with high encapsulation ability, tunable size, ease of preparation, and responsiveness to external stimuli. The presence of specific functional groups on their surfaces provides an opportunity to tune their surface properties and direct their behavior. In [...] Read more.
Nanogels are chemically crosslinked polymeric nanoparticles endowed with high encapsulation ability, tunable size, ease of preparation, and responsiveness to external stimuli. The presence of specific functional groups on their surfaces provides an opportunity to tune their surface properties and direct their behavior. In this work, we used mesoscale modeling to describe conformational and mechanical properties of nanogel surfaces formed by crosslinked polyethylene glycol and polyethyleneimine, and grafted by charged alkylamine brushes of different lengths. Simulations show that both number of chains per area and chain length can be used to tune the properties of the coating. Properly selecting these two parameters allows switching from a hydrated, responsive coating to a dried, highly charged layer. The results also suggest that the scaling behavior of alkylamine brushes, e.g., the transition from a mushroom to semi-dilute brush, is only weakly coupled with the shielding ability of the coating and much more with its compressibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Shape Dependent EMA Model of Nanostructured Anisotropic Materials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101380 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
Heterogeneous nanostructures containing nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes have attracted significant attention in the development of nano-biosensors. Especially, plasmonic properties of such materials are advantageously exploited for the detection of biological and chemical substances. Since these media exhibit optical anisotropy, a valid [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous nanostructures containing nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes have attracted significant attention in the development of nano-biosensors. Especially, plasmonic properties of such materials are advantageously exploited for the detection of biological and chemical substances. Since these media exhibit optical anisotropy, a valid homogenization procedure must be able to describe appropriately the relationship between the geometry of the inclusions and the nature of local field modes. We present a model approach for extension of the effective medium approximation (EMA) and its application to anisotropic nanostructures. The proposed model is based on a “strong-couple-dipole” (SCD) method including a volume-integral correction term in a Green tensor that enables to obtain more accurate representation of polarizability tensor. Derived depolarization factors for discs and bi-cone particles are compared with the early known shapes (spheroids, cylinders) and applied to nanostructures composed of the Fe or Au nanodots in polyacrylate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Ultrasound on Zinc Oxide/Vermiculite/Chlorhexidine Nanocomposite Preparation and Their Antibacterial Activity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091309 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Microbial infection and biofilm formation are both problems associated with medical implants and devices. In recent years, hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites based on clay minerals have attracted significant attention due to their application potential in the field of antimicrobial materials. Organic drug/metal oxide hybrids [...] Read more.
Microbial infection and biofilm formation are both problems associated with medical implants and devices. In recent years, hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites based on clay minerals have attracted significant attention due to their application potential in the field of antimicrobial materials. Organic drug/metal oxide hybrids exhibit improved antimicrobial activity, and intercalating the above materials into the interlayer of clay endows a long-term and controlled-release behavior. Since antimicrobial activity is strongly related to the structure of the material, ultrasonic treatment appears to be a suitable method for the synthesis of these materials as it can well control particle size distribution and morphology. This study aims to prepare novel, structurally stable, and highly antimicrobial nanocomposites based on zinc oxide/vermiculite/chlorhexidine. The influence of ultrasonic treatment at different time intervals and under different intercalation conditions (ultrasonic action in a breaker or in a Roset’s vessel) on the structure, morphology, and particle size of prepared hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated by the following methods: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, carbon phase analysis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area measurement, particle size analysis, and Zeta potential analysis. Particle size analyses confirmed that the ultrasonic method contributes to the reduction of particle size, and to their homogenization/arrangement. Further, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that ultrasound intercalation in a beaker helps to more efficiently intercalate chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CH) into the vermiculite interlayer space, while a Roset’s vessel contributed to the attachment of the CH molecules to the vermiculite surface. The antibacterial activity of hybrid nanocomposite materials was investigated on Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) bacterial strains by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration. All hybrid nanocomposite materials prepared by ultrasound methods showed high antimicrobial activity after 30 min, with a long-lasting effect and without being affected by the concentration of the antibacterial components zinc oxide (ZnO) and CH. The benefits of the samples prepared by ultrasonic methods are the rapid onset of an antimicrobial effect and its long-term duration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Synergistic Effect Between Ag and Zn in Ag-ZnO·mSiO2 Silicate Composite with High Specific Surface Area
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091265 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Antimicrobial materials are widely used for inhibition of microorganisms in the environment. It has been established that bacterial growth can be restrained by silver nanoparticles. Combining these with other antimicrobial agents, such as ZnO, may increase the antimicrobial activity and the use of [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial materials are widely used for inhibition of microorganisms in the environment. It has been established that bacterial growth can be restrained by silver nanoparticles. Combining these with other antimicrobial agents, such as ZnO, may increase the antimicrobial activity and the use of carrier substrate makes the material easier to handle. In the paper, we present an antimicrobial nanocomposite based on silver nanoparticles nucleated in general silicate nanostructure ZnO·mSiO2. First, we prepared the silicate fine net nanostructure ZnO·mSiO2 with zinc content up to 30 wt% by precipitation of sodium water glass in zinc acetate solution. Silver nanoparticles were then formed within the material by photoreduction of AgNO3 on photoactive ZnO. This resulted into an Ag-ZnO·mSiO2 composite with silica gel-like morphology and the specific surface area of 250 m2/g. The composite, alongside with pure AgNO3 and clear ZnO·mSiO2, were successfully tested for antimicrobial activity on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast Candida albicans. With respect to the silver content, the minimal inhibition concentration of Ag-ZnO·mSiO2 was worse than AgNO3 only for gram-negative strains. Moreover, we found a positive synergistic antimicrobial effect between Ag and Zn agents. These properties create an efficient and easily applicable antimicrobial material in the form of powder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Solvent Evaporation Technique Parameters on Diameter of Submicron Lamivudine-Poly-ε-Caprolactone Conjugate Particles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091240 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The size of active pharmaceutical ingredient carrier is one of the key properties considered during design of submicron drug delivery systems. Particle diameter may determine drug biodistribution, cellular uptake, and elimination path. Solvent evaporation technique is a flexible method of particle preparation, in [...] Read more.
The size of active pharmaceutical ingredient carrier is one of the key properties considered during design of submicron drug delivery systems. Particle diameter may determine drug biodistribution, cellular uptake, and elimination path. Solvent evaporation technique is a flexible method of particle preparation, in which various macromolecules and drugs may be employed. Parameters of emulsion obtained as first step of particle preparation are crucial in terms of particle size, drug loading, and morphology. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of emulsion preparation parameters on diameter of resulting particles. Impact of surfactant type and concentration, homogenization time, homogenization rate, phase ratio, and conjugate concentration were evaluated. Model drug lamivudine was covalently bound to polymer and applied in solvent evaporation method in order to overcome issues related to drug loading and provide method-independent incorporation. Synthesized drug–polymer conjugate and obtained particles were evaluated via dynamic light scattering, chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic methods. Covalent bonding between drug and polymeric chain was confirmed, estimated drug content per milligram of conjugate was 19 μg. Among employed colloid stabilizer, poly(vinyl alcohol) was proven to be most effective. Homogenization rate and surfactant concentration were identified as crucial parameters in terms of particle diameter control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photocatalytic Degradation of Selected Pharmaceuticals Using g-C3N4 and TiO2 Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091194 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Exfoliated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and two commercially available nanomaterials from titanium dioxide (P25 and CG300) were tested for the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol (PAR), ibuprofen (IBU), and diclofenac (DIC). Prior to photocatalytic experiments, the nanomaterials were characterized by [...] Read more.
Exfoliated graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and two commercially available nanomaterials from titanium dioxide (P25 and CG300) were tested for the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol (PAR), ibuprofen (IBU), and diclofenac (DIC). Prior to photocatalytic experiments, the nanomaterials were characterized by common methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR–ATR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), physisorption of nitrogen, and dynamic vapor adsorption (DVS) of water. The sizes and specific surface area (SSA) of the TiO2 nanoparticles were 6 nm and 300 m2·g−1 for CG300 and 21 nm and 50 m2·g−1 for P25. The SSA of g-C3N4 was 140 m2·g−1. All photocatalytic experiments were performed under UV (368 nm), as well as VIS (446 nm) irradiation. TiO2 P25 was the most active photocatalyst under UV irradiation and g-C3N4 was the most active one under VIS irradiation. Photodegradation yields were evaluated by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and reaction intermediates were identified using gas chromatography with mass detection (GC–MS). Paracetamol and ibuprofen were totally removed but the intermediates of diclofenac were observed even after 6 h of irradiation. Some intermediates, such as carbazole-1-acetic acid, 2,6-dichloraniline, and hydroxylated derivates of diclofenac were identified. This study showed that g-C3N4 is a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of pharmaceuticals in an aqueous environment, under visible light. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Synthesis of Size-Dispersal Triangular Silver Nanoprisms via Chemical Reduction Route and Their Cytotoxicity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050674 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Triangular silver nanocrystals, well-known as nanoprisms (Ag-NPrs), were successfully developed via a robust and straightforward direct chemical reduction synthetic approach, producing desirable tiny and well-controlled Ag-NPrs. This procedure was accomplished by fabricating a mixture of di-sodium succinate hexa-hydrate (DSSH) and tri-sodium citrate di-hydrate [...] Read more.
Triangular silver nanocrystals, well-known as nanoprisms (Ag-NPrs), were successfully developed via a robust and straightforward direct chemical reduction synthetic approach, producing desirable tiny and well-controlled Ag-NPrs. This procedure was accomplished by fabricating a mixture of di-sodium succinate hexa-hydrate (DSSH) and tri-sodium citrate di-hydrate (TSCD) as capping agents at optimal synthetic conditions and under an open-air condition, which proved to be an enormous challenge. Additionally, the Ag-NPrs were fully characterized by UV-vis spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Likewise, the formation stages from spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) to triangular Ag-NPrs were also captured simultaneously via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images. More interestingly, an active thin silica-shell was efficiently applied on the Ag-NPrs outer-layer to increase their functionality. Furthermore, to confirm their biocompatibility, we also carried out cell viability assays for the Ag-NPs, Ag-NPrs, and [email protected]2 with different concentrations at 62.5, 125, and 250 µg/mL after 12, 24, and 48 h of exposure time, respectively, on a regular African green monkey kidney cell line. The cell viability test results exemplified that the three silver nanostructures were toxic-free and suitable for further potential biological applications in the near future. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Graphenic Materials for Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121758 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Graphene-based nanomaterials have been intensively studied for their properties, modifications, and application potential. Biomedical applications are one of the main directions of research in this field. This review summarizes the research results which were obtained in the last two years (2017–2019), especially those [...] Read more.
Graphene-based nanomaterials have been intensively studied for their properties, modifications, and application potential. Biomedical applications are one of the main directions of research in this field. This review summarizes the research results which were obtained in the last two years (2017–2019), especially those related to drug/gene/protein delivery systems and materials with antimicrobial properties. Due to the large number of studies in the area of carbon nanomaterials, attention here is focused only on 2D structures, i.e. graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biocompatible Polymer Materials with Antimicrobial Properties for Preparation of Stents
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111548 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Biodegradable polymers are promising materials for use in medical applications such as stents. Their properties are comparable to commercially available resistant metal and polymeric stents, which have several major problems, such as stent migration and stent clogging due to microbial biofilm. Consequently, conventional [...] Read more.
Biodegradable polymers are promising materials for use in medical applications such as stents. Their properties are comparable to commercially available resistant metal and polymeric stents, which have several major problems, such as stent migration and stent clogging due to microbial biofilm. Consequently, conventional stents have to be removed operatively from the patient’s body, which presents a number of complications and can also endanger the patient’s life. Biodegradable stents disintegrate into basic substances that decompose in the human body, and no surgery is required. This review focuses on the specific use of stents in the human body, the problems of microbial biofilm, and possibilities of preventing microbial growth by modifying polymers with antimicrobial agents. Full article
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