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Special Issue "Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Wenbin Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: organic pollutants; POPs; sediment, soil contaminants; air pollution; industrial emission; incineration emission; dioxins

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In recent decades, the environmental impact of organic pollutants, especially persistent and emerging organic pollutants, has attracted extensive attention, and related research has developed rapidly. Research in organic pollutants is a popular topic in the environmental field. Industrial production and other human activities emit a large number of organic pollutants, which are widely distributed in air, water, sediment, soil, and other environmental media. A series of research projects has been carried out on the development of analytical methods for organic pollutants, the distribution of environmental media, environmental concentration, environmental fate, the exploration of new pollutants, and the non-target analysis of organic pollutants. The aim of this Special Issue is to collect original research papers and review articles focused on the abovementioned aspects of organic environmental pollutants.

Prof. Dr. Wenbin Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • organic pollutants
  • POPs
  • emerging contaminants
  • sediment contaminants
  • soil contaminants
  • water pollutants
  • air pollution
  • industrial emission

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development of a Water Matrix Certified Reference Material for Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis in Water
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4370; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144370 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Water matrix certified reference material (MCRM) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is used to provide quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) during the analysis of VOCs in water. In this research, a water MCRM of 28 VOCs was developed using a “reconstitution” approach [...] Read more.
Water matrix certified reference material (MCRM) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is used to provide quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) during the analysis of VOCs in water. In this research, a water MCRM of 28 VOCs was developed using a “reconstitution” approach by adding VOCs spiking, methanol solution into pure water immediately prior to analysis. The VOCs spiking solution was prepared gravimetrically by dividing 28 VOCs into seven groups, then based on ISO Guide 35, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the homogeneity and long-term stability. The studies of homogeneity and long-term stability indicated that the batch of VOCs spiking solution was homogeneous and stable at room temperature for at least 15 months. Moreover, the water MCRM of 28 VOCs was certified by a network of nine competent laboratories, and the certified values and expanded uncertainties of 28 VOCs ranged from 6.2 to 17 μg/L and 0.5 to 5.3 μg/L, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants)
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Article
Stable and Effective Online Monitoring and Feedback Control of PCDD/F during Municipal Waste Incineration
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4290; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144290 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 260
Abstract
For the long-term operation of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), online monitoring and feedback control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) can be used to control the emissions to national or regional standards. In this study, 500 PCDD/F samples were determined [...] Read more.
For the long-term operation of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), online monitoring and feedback control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) can be used to control the emissions to national or regional standards. In this study, 500 PCDD/F samples were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled to tunable-laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC-TLI-TOFMS) for 168 h. PCDD/F emissions range from 0.01 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 to 2.37 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, with 44% of values below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (the national standard). In addition, the temperature of the furnace outlet, bed pressure, and oxygen content are considered as key operating parameters among the 13 operating parameters comprising four temperature parameters, four pressure parameters, four flow parameters, and oxygen content. More specifically, maintaining the furnace outlet temperature to be higher than 800 °C, or bed pressure higher than 13 kPa, or the oxygen content stably and above 10% are effective methods for reducing PCDD/F emissions. According to the analysis of the Pearson coefficients and maximal information coefficients, there is no significant correlation between operating parameters and PCDD/F I-TEQ. Only when there is a significant change in one of these factors will the PCDD/F emissions also change accordingly. The feedback control of PCDD/F emissions is realized by adjusting the furnace outlet temperature, bed temperature, and bed pressure to control the PCDD/F to be less than 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants)
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Article
Study on the Joint Toxicity of BPZ, BPS, BPC and BPF to Zebrafish
Molecules 2021, 26(14), 4180; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144180 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol C (BPC), and bisphenol F (BPF) had been widely used as alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA), but the toxicity data of these bisphenol analogues were very limited. In this study, the joint toxicity of BPZ, BPS, [...] Read more.
Bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol C (BPC), and bisphenol F (BPF) had been widely used as alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA), but the toxicity data of these bisphenol analogues were very limited. In this study, the joint toxicity of BPZ, BPS, BPC, and BPF to zebrafish (Danio rerio) was investigated. The median half lethal concentrations (LC50) of BPZ, BPS, BPC, and BPF to zebrafish for 96 h were 6.9 × 105 µM, 3.9 × 107 µM, 7.1 × 105 µM, and1.6 × 106 µM, respectively. The joint toxicity effect of BPF–BPC (7.7 × 105–3.4 × 105µM) and BPZ–BPC (3.4 × 105–3.5 × 105µM) with the same toxic ratio showed a synergistic effect, which may be attributed to enzyme inhibition or induction theory. While the toxicity effect of the other two bisphenol analogue combined groups and multi-joint pairs showed an antagonistic effect due to the competition site, other causes need to be further explored. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the estrogen receptor genes (ERα, ERβ1) and antioxidant enzyme genes (SOD, CAT, GPX) were analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in zebrafish exposure to LC50 of BPZ, BPS, BPC, and BPF collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Relative expression of CAT, GPX, and ERβ1 mRNA declined significantly compared to the blank control, which might be a major cause of oxidant injury of antioxidant systems and the disruption of the endocrine systems in zebrafish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants)
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Article
Heart Failure and PAHs, OHPAHs, and Trace Elements Levels in Human Serum: Results from a Preliminary Pilot Study in Greek Population and the Possible Impact of Air Pollution
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3207; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113207 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been associated with environmental pollutants. The scope of this study is to assess any potential relation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their hydroxylated derivatives, and trace elements with heart failure via their direct determination in human serum of Greek [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been associated with environmental pollutants. The scope of this study is to assess any potential relation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their hydroxylated derivatives, and trace elements with heart failure via their direct determination in human serum of Greek citizens residing in different areas. Therefore, we analyzed 131 samples including cases (heart failure patients) and controls (healthy donors), and the respective demographic data were collected. Significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.05) were observed in cases’ serum regarding most of the examined PAHs and their derivatives with phenanthrene, fluorene, and fluoranthene being the most abundant (median of >50 μg L−1). Among the examined trace elements, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb were measured at statistically higher concentrations (p < 0.05) in cases’ samples, with only Cr being significantly higher in controls. The potential impact of environmental factors such as smoking and area of residence has been evaluated. Specific PAHs and trace elements could be possibly related with heart failure development. Atmospheric degradation and smoking habit appeared to have a significant impact on the analytes’ serum concentrations. PCA–logistic regression analysis could possibly reveal common mechanisms among the analytes enhancing the hypothesis that they may pose a significant risk for CVD development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants)
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Article
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Heavy Metals in a Regulated E-Waste Recycling Site, Eastern China: Implications for Risk Management
Molecules 2021, 26(8), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082169 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Serious pollution of multiple chemicals in irregulated e-waste recycling sites (IR-sites) were extensively investigated. However, little is known about the pollution in regulated sites. This study investigated the occurrence of 21 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 10 metals in a regulated site, in [...] Read more.
Serious pollution of multiple chemicals in irregulated e-waste recycling sites (IR-sites) were extensively investigated. However, little is known about the pollution in regulated sites. This study investigated the occurrence of 21 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 10 metals in a regulated site, in Eastern China. The concentrations of PBDEs and Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in soils and sediments were 1–4 and 1–3 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in the IR-sites, respectively. However, these were generally comparable to those in the urban and industrial areas. In general, a moderate pollution of PBDEs and metals was present in the vegetables in this area. A health risk assessment model was used to calculate human exposure to metals in soils. The summed non-carcinogenic risks of metals and PBDEs in the investigated soils were 1.59–3.27 and 0.25–0.51 for children and adults, respectively. Arsenic contributed to 47% of the total risks and As risks in 71.4% of the total soil samples exceeded the acceptable level. These results suggested that the pollution from e-waste recycling could be substantially decreased by the regulated activities, relative to poorly controlled operations, but arsenic pollution from the regulated cycling should be further controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants)
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Review

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Review
Detecting and Quantifying Polyhaloaromatic Environmental Pollutants by Chemiluminescence-Based Analytical Method
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3365; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113365 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 495
Abstract
Polyhaloaromatic compounds (XAr) are ubiquitous and recalcitrant in the environment. They are potentially carcinogenic to organisms and may induce serious risks to the ecosystem, raising increasing public concern. Therefore, it is important to detect and quantify these ubiquitous XAr in the environment, and [...] Read more.
Polyhaloaromatic compounds (XAr) are ubiquitous and recalcitrant in the environment. They are potentially carcinogenic to organisms and may induce serious risks to the ecosystem, raising increasing public concern. Therefore, it is important to detect and quantify these ubiquitous XAr in the environment, and to monitor their degradation kinetics during the treatment of these recalcitrant pollutants. We have previously found that unprecedented intrinsic chemiluminescence (CL) can be produced by a haloquinones/H2O2 system, a newly-found OH-generating system different from the classic Fenton system. Recently, we found that the degradation of priority pollutant pentachlorophenol by the classic Fe(II)-Fenton system could produce intrinsic CL, which was mainly dependent on the generation of chloroquinone intermediates. Analogous effects were observed for all nineteen chlorophenols, other halophenols and several classes of XAr, and a novel, rapid and sensitive CL-based analytical method was developed to detect these XAr and monitor their degradation kinetics. Interestingly, for those XAr with halohydroxyl quinoid structure, a Co(II)-mediated Fenton-like system could induce a stronger CL emission and higher degradation, probably due to site-specific generation of highly-effective OH. These findings may have broad chemical and environmental implications for future studies, which would be helpful for developing new analytical methods and technologies to investigate those ubiquitous XAr. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Analysis of Organic Pollutants)
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