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Special Issue "Solid Phase Extraction: State of the Art and Future Perspectives"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Victoria Samanidou

Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
E-Mail
Interests: analytical chemistry; sample preparation; separations; HPLC; extraction techniques

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Beyond any doubt, sample preparation is the most important step prior to sample analysis. It is the step that can guarantee an accurate and rapidly obtained result if applied in a correct manner. Due to the fact that it usually involves more than one step, it is tedious, time consuming, and any potential errors will accumulate and yield an erroneous outcome.

Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been a determinative player in the challenge of chemical analysis during the last decades. In the meantime, many sample preparation approaches have been evolved trying to replace it by promising better and “greener” performance. However, SPE still plays a key role in method development, and advanced sorbent technology can re-orient the traditional approach to new perspectives. This Special Issue aims to review the state of the art of this sample preparation technique and also describe the recent and future advances.

Prof. Dr. Victoria F. Samanidou
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Solid phase extraction
  • Microextraction
  • Green Chemistry
  • Sample preparation
  • Preconcentration
  • Clean-up
  • Microextraction by packed syringe
  • Matrix solid phase dispersion
  • Nanomaterials
  • Magnetic solid phase extraction
  • Dispersive solid phase extraction
  • Magnetic sorbents

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Synthetic Peptide Purification via Solid-Phase Extraction with Gradient Elution: A Simple, Economical, Fast, and Efficient Methodology
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071215
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A methodology was implemented for purifying peptides in one chromatographic run via solid-phase extraction (SPE), reverse phase mode (RP), and gradient elution, obtaining high-purity products with good yields. Crude peptides were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and a new mathematical [...] Read more.
A methodology was implemented for purifying peptides in one chromatographic run via solid-phase extraction (SPE), reverse phase mode (RP), and gradient elution, obtaining high-purity products with good yields. Crude peptides were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and a new mathematical model based on its retention time was developed in order to predict the percentage of organic modifier in which the peptide will elute in RP-SPE. This information was used for designing the elution program of each molecule. It was possible to purify peptides with different physicochemical properties, showing that this method is versatile and requires low solvent consumption, making it the least polluting one. Reverse phase-SPE can easily be routinely implemented. It is an alternative to enrich and purified synthetic or natural molecules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Various Fruit Juices and Water Samples Using Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061013
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Fabric phase sorptive extraction, an innovative integration of solid phase extraction and solid phase microextraction principles, has been combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid extraction and determination of nineteen organochlorine pesticides in various fruit juices and water samples. FPSE consolidates the [...] Read more.
Fabric phase sorptive extraction, an innovative integration of solid phase extraction and solid phase microextraction principles, has been combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid extraction and determination of nineteen organochlorine pesticides in various fruit juices and water samples. FPSE consolidates the advanced features of sol-gel derived extraction sorbents with the rich surface chemistry of cellulose fabric substrate, which could extract the target analytes directly from the complex sample matrices, substantially simplifying the sample preparation operation. Important FPSE parameters, including sorbent chemistry, extraction time, stirring speed, type and volume of back-extraction solvent, and back-extraction time have been optimized. Calibration curves were obtained in a concentration range of 0.1–500 ng/mL. Under optimum conditions, limits of detection were obtained in a range of 0.007–0.032 ng/mL with satisfactory precision (RSD < 6%). The relative recoveries obtained by spiking organochlorine pesticides in water and selected juice samples were in the range of 91.56–99.83%. The sorbent sol-gel poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) was applied for the extraction and preconcentration of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous and fruit juice samples prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the present method is simple, rapid, and precise for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Exhaustive and Equilibrium Extraction Using Different SPE Sorbents and Sol-Gel Carbowax 20M Coated FPSE Media
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030382
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports the performance comparison between the exhaustive and equilibrium extraction using classical Avantor C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) SPE sorbent, Sep-Pak C18 SPE sorbent, novel sol-gel Carbowax 20M (sol-gel CW 20M) SPE sorbent, and sol-gel CW 20M [...] Read more.
This paper reports the performance comparison between the exhaustive and equilibrium extraction using classical Avantor C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) SPE sorbent, Sep-Pak C18 SPE sorbent, novel sol-gel Carbowax 20M (sol-gel CW 20M) SPE sorbent, and sol-gel CW 20M coated fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) media for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of three inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drugs that possess logP values (polarity) ranging from 1.66 for cortisone, 2.30 for ciprofloxacin, and 2.92 for sulfasalazine. Both the commercial SPE phases and in-house synthesized sol-gel CW 20M SPE phases were loaded in SPE cartridges and the extractions were carried out under an exhaustive extraction mode. FPSE was carried out under an equilibrium extraction mode. The drug compounds were resolved using a Luna C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 20 min and the method was validated in compliance with international guidelines for the bioanalytical method validation. Novel in-house synthesized and loaded sol-gel CW 20M SPE sorbent cartridges were characterized in terms of their extraction capability, breakthrough volume, retention volume, hold-up volume, number of the theoretical plate, and the retention factor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Ligand Functionalization of UiO-66-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks When Used as Sorbents in Dispersive Solid-Phase Analytical Microextraction for Different Aqueous Organic Pollutants
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112869
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Four metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically UiO-66, UiO-66-NH2, UiO-66-NO2, and MIL-53(Al), were synthesized, characterized, and used as sorbents in a dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-µSPE) method for the determination of nine pollutants of different nature, including drugs, phenols, polycyclic aromatic [...] Read more.
Four metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically UiO-66, UiO-66-NH2, UiO-66-NO2, and MIL-53(Al), were synthesized, characterized, and used as sorbents in a dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-µSPE) method for the determination of nine pollutants of different nature, including drugs, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and personal care products in environmental waters. The D-µSPE method, using these MOFs as sorbents and in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode-array detection (DAD), was optimized. The optimization study pointed out to UiO-66-NO2 as the best MOF to use in the multi-component determination. Furthermore, the utilization of isoreticular MOFs based on UiO-66 with the same topology but different functional groups, and MIL-53(Al) to compare with, allowed us for the first time to evaluate the influence of such functionalization of the ligand with regards to the efficiency of the D-µSPE-HPLC-DAD method. Optimum conditions included: 20 mg of UiO-66-NO2 MOF in 20 mL of the aqueous sample, 3 min of agitation by vortex and 5 min of centrifugation, followed by the use of only 500 µL of acetonitrile as desorption solvent (once the MOF containing analytes was separated), 5 min of vortex and 5 min of centrifugation. The validation of the D-µSPE-HPLC-DAD method showed limits of detection down to 1.5 ng·L−1, average relative recoveries of 107% for a spiked level of 1.50 µg·L−1, and inter-day precision values with relative standard deviations lower than 14%, for the group of pollutants considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Enantiomeric Excess by Solid-Phase Extraction Using a Chiral Metal-Organic Framework as Sorbent
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112802
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
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Abstract
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted considerable attention because of their fascinating structures and intriguing potential applications in diverse areas. In this study, we developed a novel method for determination of enantiomeric excess (ee) of (±)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using [...] Read more.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently attracted considerable attention because of their fascinating structures and intriguing potential applications in diverse areas. In this study, we developed a novel method for determination of enantiomeric excess (ee) of (±)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a chiral MOF, [Co(l-tyr)]n(l-tyrCo), as sorbent. After optimization of the experimental conditions, a good linear relationship between the ee and the absorbance of the eluate (R2 = 0.9984) was obtained and the standard curve was established at the concentration of 3 mmol L1. The ee values of (±)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol samples can be rapidly calculated using the standard curve after determination of the absorbance of the eluate. The method showed good accuracy, with an average error of 2.26%, and is promising for ee analysis. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Melamine Sponge Functionalized with Urea-Formaldehyde Co-Oligomers as a Sorbent for the Solid-Phase Extraction of Hydrophobic Analytes
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102595
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
A new procedure for the functionalization of melamine sponge (MeS) with urea-formaldehyde (UF) co-oligomers is put forward. The procedure differs from the typical synthesis of the UF co-polymer, as it employs a base-catalyzed condensation step at certain concentrations of urea and formaldehyde. The [...] Read more.
A new procedure for the functionalization of melamine sponge (MeS) with urea-formaldehyde (UF) co-oligomers is put forward. The procedure differs from the typical synthesis of the UF co-polymer, as it employs a base-catalyzed condensation step at certain concentrations of urea and formaldehyde. The produced melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) sponge cubes are hydrophobic, despite the presence of hydrophilic groups in the oligomers. The MUF sponge developed herein is used as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of 10 analytes, from 6 different classes (i.e., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzophenones, parabens, phenols, pesticides and musks) and an analytical method is developed for their liquid chromatographic separation and detection. Low limits of quantification (0.03 and 1.0 μg L−1), wide linear ranges and excellent recoveries (92–100%) are some of the benefits of the proposed procedure. The study of the synthesis conditions of MUF cubes reveals that by altering them the hydrophilic/lipophilic balance of the MUF cubes can be tuned, hinting towards a strong potential for many other applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In-Syringe Micro Solid-Phase Extraction Method for the Separation and Preconcentration of Parabens in Environmental Water Samples
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061450
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a simple, rapid and effective in-syringe micro-solid phase extraction (MSPE) method was developed for the separation and preconcetration of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in environmental water samples. The parabens were determined and quantified using high performance liquid [...] Read more.
In this study, a simple, rapid and effective in-syringe micro-solid phase extraction (MSPE) method was developed for the separation and preconcetration of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in environmental water samples. The parabens were determined and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA). Chitosan-coated activated carbon (CAC) was used as the sorbent in the in-syringe MSPE device. A response surface methodology based on central composite design was used for the optimization of factors (eluent solvent type, eluent volume, number of elution cycles, sample volume, sample pH) affecting the extraction efficiency of the preconcentration procedure. The adsorbent used displayed excellent absorption performance and the adsorption capacity ranged from 227–256 mg g−1. Under the optimal conditions the dynamic linear ranges for the parabens were between 0.04 and 380 µg L−1. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 6–15 ng L−1 and 20–50 ng L−1, respectively. The intraday (repeatability) and interday (reproducibility) precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (%RSD) were below 5%. Furthermore, the in-syringe MSPE/HPLC procedure was validated using spiked wastewater and tap water samples and the recoveries ranged between from 96.7 to 107%. In conclusion, CAC based in-syringe MSPE method demonstrated great potential for preconcentration of parabens in complex environmental water. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Carbon Nanohorn Suprastructures on a Paper Support as a Sorptive Phase
Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061252
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This article describes a method for the modification of paper with single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) to form stable suprastructures. The SWCNHs form stable dahlia-like aggregates in solution that are then self-assembled into superior structures if the solvent is evaporated. Dipping paper sections into [...] Read more.
This article describes a method for the modification of paper with single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) to form stable suprastructures. The SWCNHs form stable dahlia-like aggregates in solution that are then self-assembled into superior structures if the solvent is evaporated. Dipping paper sections into a dispersion of SWCNHs leads to the formation of a thin film that can be used for microextraction purposes. The coated paper can be easily handled with a simple pipette tip, paving the way for disposable extraction units. As a proof of concept, the extraction of antidepressants from urine and their determination by direct infusion mass spectrometry is studied. Limits of detection (LODs) were 10 ng/L for desipramine, amitriptyline, and mianserin, while the precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was 7.2%, 7.3%, and 9.8%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preconcentration and Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Water Samples by Bamboo Charcoal-Based Solid-Phase Extraction Prior to Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040902
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, bamboo charcoal was used as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the enrichment of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental water samples before liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The specific porous structure, high specific surface area, high porosity, and stability of bamboo [...] Read more.
In this work, bamboo charcoal was used as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the enrichment of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental water samples before liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The specific porous structure, high specific surface area, high porosity, and stability of bamboo charcoal were characterized. Several experimental parameters which considerably affect extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized in detail. The experimental data exhibited low limits of detection (LODs) (0.01–1.15 ng/L), wide linear range (2–3 orders of magnitude and R ≥ 0.993) within the concentration range of 0.1–1000 ng/L, and good repeatability (2.7–5.0%, n = 5 intraday and 4.8–8.3%, n = 5 interday) and reproducibility (5.3–8.0%, n = 3). Bamboo charcoal was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of PFAAs in real environmental water samples. The bamboo charcoal-based solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis possessed great potential in the determination of trace PFAA levels in environmental water samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Separation of Four Antibacterial Diterpenes from the Roots of Salvia Prattii Using Non-Aqueous Hydrophilic Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030623
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An efficient preparative procedure for the separation of four antibacterial diterpenes from a Salvia prattii crude diterpenes-rich sample was developed. Firstly, the XION hydrophilic stationary phase was chosen to separate the antibacterial crude diterpenes-rich sample (18.0 g) into three fractions with a recovery [...] Read more.
An efficient preparative procedure for the separation of four antibacterial diterpenes from a Salvia prattii crude diterpenes-rich sample was developed. Firstly, the XION hydrophilic stationary phase was chosen to separate the antibacterial crude diterpenes-rich sample (18.0 g) into three fractions with a recovery of 46.1%. Then, the antibacterial fractions I (200 mg), II (200 mg), and III (150 g) were separated by the Megress C18 preparative column, and compounds tanshinone IIA (80.0 mg), salvinolone (62.0 mg), cryptotanshinone (70.0 mg), and ferruginol (68.0 mg) were produced with purities greater than 98%. The procedure achieved large-scale preparation of the four diterpenes with high purity, and it could act as a reference for the efficient preparation of active diterpenes from other plant extracts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitive Detection of 8-Nitroguanine in DNA by Chemical Derivatization Coupled with Online Solid-Phase Extraction LC-MS/MS
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030605
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
8-Nitroguanine (8-nitroG) is a major mutagenic nucleobase lesion generated by peroxynitrite during inflammation and has been used as a potential biomarker to evaluate inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Here, we present an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS method with 6-methoxy-2-naphthyl glyoxal hydrate (MTNG) derivatization for a [...] Read more.
8-Nitroguanine (8-nitroG) is a major mutagenic nucleobase lesion generated by peroxynitrite during inflammation and has been used as a potential biomarker to evaluate inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Here, we present an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS method with 6-methoxy-2-naphthyl glyoxal hydrate (MTNG) derivatization for a sensitive and precise measurement of 8-nitroG in DNA. Derivatization optimization revealed that an excess of MTNG is required to achieve complete derivatization in DNA hydrolysates (MTNG: 8-nitroG molar ratio of 3740:1). The use of online SPE effectively avoided ion-source contamination from derivatization reagent by washing away all unreacted MTNG before column chromatography and the ionization process in mass spectrometry. With the use of isotope-labeled internal standard, the detection limit was as low as 0.015 nM. Inter- and intraday imprecision was <5.0%. This method was compared to a previous direct LC-MS/MS method without derivatization. The comparison showed an excellent fit and consistency, suggesting that the present method has satisfactory effectiveness and reliability for 8-nitroG analysis. This method was further applied to determine the 8-nitroG in human urine. 8-NitroG was not detectable using LC-MS/MS with derivatization, whereas a significant false-positive signal was detected without derivatization. It highlights the use of MTNG derivatization in 8-nitroG analysis for increasing the method specificity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene-Derivatized Silica Composite as Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent Combined with GC–MS/MS for the Determination of Polycyclic Musks in Aqueous Samples
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020318
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polycyclic musks (PCMs) have recently received growing attention as emerging contaminants because of their bioaccumulation and potential ecotoxicological effects. Herein, an effective method for the determination of five PCMs in aqueous samples is presented. Reduced graphene oxide-derivatized silica ([email protected]) particles were prepared from [...] Read more.
Polycyclic musks (PCMs) have recently received growing attention as emerging contaminants because of their bioaccumulation and potential ecotoxicological effects. Herein, an effective method for the determination of five PCMs in aqueous samples is presented. Reduced graphene oxide-derivatized silica ([email protected]) particles were prepared from graphene oxide and aminosilica microparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PCMs were preconcentrated using [email protected] as the solid-phase extraction sorbent and quantified by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Several experimental parameters, such as eluent, elution volume, sorbent amount, pH, and sample volume were optimized. The correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.9958 to 0.9992, while the limits of detection and quantitation for the five PCMs were 0.3–0.8 ng/L and 1.1–2.1 ng/L, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for tap water (86.6–105.9%) and river water samples (82.9–107.1%), with relative standard deviations <10% under optimal conditions. The developed method was applied to analyze PCMs in tap and river water samples from Beijing, China. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the main PCM components detected in one river water sample at concentrations of 18.7 for HHCB, and 11.7 ng/L for AHTN. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Solid-Phase Extraction of Polar Benzotriazoles as Environmental Pollutants: A Review
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102501
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polar benzotriazoles are corrosion inhibitors with widespread use; they are environmentally characterized as emerging pollutants in the water system, where they are present in low concentrations. Various extraction methods have been used for their separation from various matrices, ranging from classical liquid–liquid extractions [...] Read more.
Polar benzotriazoles are corrosion inhibitors with widespread use; they are environmentally characterized as emerging pollutants in the water system, where they are present in low concentrations. Various extraction methods have been used for their separation from various matrices, ranging from classical liquid–liquid extractions to various microextraction techniques, but the most frequently applied extraction technique remains the solid-phase extraction (SPE), which is the focus of this review. We present an overview of the methods, developed in the last decade, applied for the determination of benzotriazoles in aqueous and solid environmental samples. Several other matrices, such as human urine and plant material, are also considered in the text. The methods are reviewed according to the determined compounds, sample matrices, cartridges and eluents used, extraction recoveries and the achieved limits of quantification. A critical evaluation of the advantages and drawbacks of the published methods is given. Full article
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