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Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061450

In-Syringe Micro Solid-Phase Extraction Method for the Separation and Preconcentration of Parabens in Environmental Water Samples

Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, P.O. Box 17011, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
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Academic Editor: Victoria F. Samanidou
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Extraction: State of the Art and Future Perspectives)
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Abstract

In this study, a simple, rapid and effective in-syringe micro-solid phase extraction (MSPE) method was developed for the separation and preconcetration of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in environmental water samples. The parabens were determined and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA). Chitosan-coated activated carbon (CAC) was used as the sorbent in the in-syringe MSPE device. A response surface methodology based on central composite design was used for the optimization of factors (eluent solvent type, eluent volume, number of elution cycles, sample volume, sample pH) affecting the extraction efficiency of the preconcentration procedure. The adsorbent used displayed excellent absorption performance and the adsorption capacity ranged from 227–256 mg g−1. Under the optimal conditions the dynamic linear ranges for the parabens were between 0.04 and 380 µg L−1. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 6–15 ng L−1 and 20–50 ng L−1, respectively. The intraday (repeatability) and interday (reproducibility) precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (%RSD) were below 5%. Furthermore, the in-syringe MSPE/HPLC procedure was validated using spiked wastewater and tap water samples and the recoveries ranged between from 96.7 to 107%. In conclusion, CAC based in-syringe MSPE method demonstrated great potential for preconcentration of parabens in complex environmental water. View Full-Text
Keywords: in-syringe micro solid-phase extraction; personal care products; response surface methodology; parabens; wastewater in-syringe micro solid-phase extraction; personal care products; response surface methodology; parabens; wastewater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mashile, G.P.; Mpupa, A.; Nomngongo, P.N. In-Syringe Micro Solid-Phase Extraction Method for the Separation and Preconcentration of Parabens in Environmental Water Samples. Molecules 2018, 23, 1450.

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