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Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants: Evidence of Protective Effects against Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Fabio Galvano

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antioxidants are abundant micronutrients in human diet and evidence for their protective role against noncommunicable chronic diseases is emerging. Antioxidants are abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, nuts, cocoa, whole-grains, olive oil, and beverages, such as coffee and tea. It is known that a diet, plentiful in antioxidant-rich foods, may reduce the risk of chronic disease. However, due to the complexity of this relationship, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of bioactive food components is needed to better assume the role of complex dietary patterns in human health.

This Special Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerning dietary antioxidants and the following issues:

  • observational studies on nutritional cohorts or case-control studies on the association with chronic disease;
  • clinical trials of dietary antioxidants on disease prevention;
  • level of evidence on the association with human health (systematic reviews and meta-analyses);
  • comprehensive reviews on dietary antioxidants;
  • in vitro and in vivo studies on molecular mechanisms and targets of dietary antioxidants.

Prof. Fabio Galvano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • dietary
  • polyphenols
  • antioxidant-rich foods
  • antioxidant-rich beverages
  • nutrition
  • chronic disease

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness and Safety of Dietetic Supplementation of a New Nutraceutical on Lipid Profile and Serum Inflammation Biomarkers in Hypercholesterolemic Patients
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051168
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: To assess the effectiveness and safety of a new nutraceutical (NC) on lipid profile, inflammation biomarkers and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) serum levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Methods: 40 patients underwent hypolipemic treatment with NC. Initial and final (after 12 weeks) screening
[...] Read more.
Background: To assess the effectiveness and safety of a new nutraceutical (NC) on lipid profile, inflammation biomarkers and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) serum levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Methods: 40 patients underwent hypolipemic treatment with NC. Initial and final (after 12 weeks) screening included medical history, physical examination, and measurement of serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides), hepatic (GOT, GPT, γGT), and renal (serum creatinine and urea) functions, CPK level and many inflammation biomarkers (hs-CRP and fibrinogen). At the screening visit, all patients were instructed to follow a normocaloric and hypolipidic diet during the study period. Results: The treatment with supplementation of NC demonstrated a significant reduction of serum total cholesterol (224 ± 11.2 mg/dL vs. 178 ± 10.7; p < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (141 ± 10.6 vs. 116 + 10.1; p < 0.001), triglycerides (183 ± 13 vs. 159 ± 11.5; p < 0.01), serum inflammatory biomarkers as hs-CRP (2.24 ± 0.83 vs. 1.76 ± 0.61 mg/dL; p < 0.01), fibrinogen (315 ± 43 vs. 199 ± 41 mg/dL; p < 0.01) and a significantly increase of HDL-cholesterol (44 ± 7 vs. 53 ± 7 mg/dL; p < 0.01). Hepatic and renal function and serum CPK were normal. No adverse events was reported. Conclusions: The treatment with NC has demonstrated a significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol (−17.73%), total cholesterol (−20.53%) and triglycerides (−13.1%), with a significant increase of HDL-cholesterol values (+20.45%). The improvement of lipid profile was associated with a significant reduction of serum inflammation biomarkers as hs-PCR (−27%) and fibrinogen (−36.8%) with good tolerability profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Depression: Results from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Lifestyle and Aging (MEAL) Study
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23050999
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: The epidemiological evidence for a relation between dietary polyphenol intake and depression is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between habitual dietary intake of total polyphenols, their classes, subclasses and individual compounds and depressive symptoms
[...] Read more.
Background: The epidemiological evidence for a relation between dietary polyphenol intake and depression is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between habitual dietary intake of total polyphenols, their classes, subclasses and individual compounds and depressive symptoms among the participants of the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Lifestyle and Aging (MEAL) study. Methods: Demographic and dietary characteristics of 1572 adults living in southern Italy were analyzed. Food frequency questionnaires and Phenol-Explorer were used to calculate habitual dietary intakes of polyphenols. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) was used as screening tool for depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test associations and were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of 509 individuals reported having depressive symptoms. Based on multivariate logistic regression analyses, total polyphenol intake was not associated with depressive symptoms. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, dietary intake of phenolic acid (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.93), flavanones (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.91), and anthocyanins (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.89) showed significant inverse association with depressive symptoms, when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Moreover, flavanones and anthocyanins, were associated with depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner. Among individual compounds, inverse association was observed for quercetin (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.86) and naringenin (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.85), for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake. When taking into consideration the major sources of the polyphenols, only citrus fruits and wine consumption was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (Q4 vs. Q1: OR= 0.51, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.75; Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.74, respectively). Conclusions: Higher dietary intake of flavonoid may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to definitively confirm these observed associations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Plasma and Salivary Non-Urate Total Antioxidant Capacity Does Not Depend on Dietary Vitamin C, E, or β-Carotene Intake in Older Subjects
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040983
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
The native Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of plasma and saliva is generally determined by uric acid (UA). Several studies have assessed the impact of habitual dietary antioxidative vitamin intake on TAC, but it remains unknown whether it influences Non-Urate Total Antioxidant Capacity (Nu-TAC),
[...] Read more.
The native Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of plasma and saliva is generally determined by uric acid (UA). Several studies have assessed the impact of habitual dietary antioxidative vitamin intake on TAC, but it remains unknown whether it influences Non-Urate Total Antioxidant Capacity (Nu-TAC), i.e., TAC after enzymatic UA elimination. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the intake of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene, provided with usual daily food rations, affects plasma and salivary Nu-TAC. The study involved 56 older subjects (aged 66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two age- and sex-matched groups: group 1 (n = 28), with lower combined vitamin C, E, and β-carotene intake, and group 2 (n = 28), with higher intake. A 24 h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. Nu-TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma—Nu-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl—Nu-DPPH) and in saliva (Nu-FRAS and Nu-DPPHS test). No differences were found in the Nu-TAC parameters between the groups, either in plasma (Nu-FRAP, Nu-DPPH) or in saliva (Nu-FRAS, Nu-DPPHS) (p > 0.05). No plasma or salivary Nu-TAC indices correlated with dietary vitamin C, E, or β-carotene intake or with other nutrients. Habitual, not extra-supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary Nu-TAC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization of an Encapsulated Red Wine Powder and Its Effects on Neuronal Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040842
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance
[...] Read more.
Red wine polyphenols are known for their implications for human health protection, although they suffer from high instability. For this reason, a red wine powder was prepared by freeze-drying encapsulation in maltodextrin/arabic gum matrix, and its composition was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-QTOF). More than thirty polyphenols, including anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenoids, were identified. Some of the main quantified polyphenols were: malvidin-3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-(6″-acetyl-glucose), petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, syringenin-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The biological activity of this de-alcoholized and encapsulated red wine on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was studied. The results showed that the encapsulated red wine powder has active redox properties, as verified by performing reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis utilizing a neuronal model. This could help explain its action against the neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Differences in the Effects of EGCG on Chromosomal Stability and Cell Growth between Normal and Colon Cancer Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040788
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) proved to be the most potent physiologically active tea compound in vitro. It possesses antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties. EGCG has the effect of inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibiting cell proliferation. Whether this effect is
[...] Read more.
The tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) proved to be the most potent physiologically active tea compound in vitro. It possesses antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties. EGCG has the effect of inducing apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibiting cell proliferation. Whether this effect is associated with the antioxidant or pro-oxidative effects of EGCG affecting the genome stability of normal and cancer cells has not been confirmed. Here, we selected Human normal colon epithelial cells NCM460 and colon adenocarcinoma cells COLO205 to investigate the effects of EGCG (0–40 μg/mL) on the genome stability and cell growth status. Chromosomal instability (CIN), nuclear division index (NDI), and apoptosis was measured by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN), and the expression of core genes in mismatch repair (hMLMLH1 and hMSH2) was examined by RT-qPCR. We found that EGCG significantly reduced CIN and apoptosis rate of NCM460 at all concentrations (5–40 μg/mL) and treatment time, EGCG at 5 μg/mL promoted cell division; EGCG could significantly induce chromosome instability in COLO205 cells and trigger apoptosis and inhibition of cell division. These results suggest that EGCG exhibits different genetic and cytological effects in normal and colon cancer cells. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Anti-Amyloid Aggregation Activity of Black Sesame Pigment: Toward a Novel Alzheimer’s Disease Preventive Agent
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030676
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Black sesame pigment (BSP) represents a low cost, easily accessible material of plant origin exhibiting marked antioxidant and heavy metal-binding properties with potential as a food supplement. We report herein the inhibitory properties of the potentially bioaccessible fraction of BSP following simulated gastrointestinal
[...] Read more.
Black sesame pigment (BSP) represents a low cost, easily accessible material of plant origin exhibiting marked antioxidant and heavy metal-binding properties with potential as a food supplement. We report herein the inhibitory properties of the potentially bioaccessible fraction of BSP following simulated gastrointestinal digestion against key enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). HPLC analysis indicated that BSP is transformed under the pH conditions mimicking the intestinal environment and the most abundant of the released compounds was identified as vanillic acid. More than 80% inhibition of acetylcholinesterase-induced aggregation of the β-amyloid Aβ1-40 was observed in the presence of the potentially bioaccessible fraction of BSP, which also efficiently inhibited self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation and β-secretase (BACE-1) activity, even at high dilution. These properties open new perspectives toward the use of BSP as an ingredient of functional food or as a food supplement for the prevention of AD. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO)-Induced Impairment of Cardiomyocyte Function and the Protective Role of Urolithin B-Glucuronide
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030549
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6786 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most recently proposed candidates as a potential trigger for cardiovascular diseases is trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Possible direct effects of TMAO on myocardial tissue, independent of vascular damage, have been only partially explored so far. In the present study, we
[...] Read more.
One of the most recently proposed candidates as a potential trigger for cardiovascular diseases is trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Possible direct effects of TMAO on myocardial tissue, independent of vascular damage, have been only partially explored so far. In the present study, we assessed the detrimental direct effects of TMAO on cardiomyocyte contractility and intracellular calcium dynamics, and the ability of urolithin B-glucuronide (Uro B-gluc) in counteracting TMAO-induced cell damage. Cell mechanics and calcium transients were measured, and ultrastructural analysis was performed in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from the heart of normal adult rats. Cells were either untreated, exposed to TMAO, or to TMAO and Uro B-gluc. TMAO exposure worsened cardiomyocyte mechanics and intracellular calcium handling, as documented by the decrease in the fraction of shortening (FS) and the maximal rate of shortening and re-lengthening, associated with reduced efficiency in the intracellular calcium removal. Ultrastructurally, TMAO-treated cardiomyocytes also exhibited glycogen accumulation, a higher number of mitochondria and lipofuscin-like pigment deposition, suggesting an altered cellular energetic metabolism and a higher rate of protein oxidative damage, respectively. Uro B-gluc led to a complete recovery of cellular contractility and calcium dynamics, and morphologically to a reduced glycogen accumulation. We demonstrated for the first time a direct negative role of TMAO on cardiomyocyte functional properties and the ability of Uro B-gluc in counteracting these detrimental effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake is Inversely Associated with Hypertension in a Cohort of Adults Living in the Mediterranean Area
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020368
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Dietary polyphenols, including phytoestrogens are abundantly present in a balanced diet. Evidence for their role in preventing non-communicable diseases is emerging. Methods: We examined the association between estimated habitual intakes of dietary phytoestrogens and hypertension in a cohort study. The baseline data
[...] Read more.
Background: Dietary polyphenols, including phytoestrogens are abundantly present in a balanced diet. Evidence for their role in preventing non-communicable diseases is emerging. Methods: We examined the association between estimated habitual intakes of dietary phytoestrogens and hypertension in a cohort study. The baseline data included 1936 men and women aged 18 years and older. Intakes of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones, and lignans were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaire. Data on the polyphenols content in foods were retrieved from the Phenol-Explorer database. Results: Individuals in the highest quartile of dietary phytoestrogens intake were less likely to be hypertensive (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44–0.98); moreover, the association showed a significant decreasing trend. Isoflavones and lignans were not associated with lower odds of hypertension; however, some individual compounds, such as biochanin A and pinoresinol showed an independent inverse association with hypertension. Conclusions: Dietary phytoestrogens are associated with lower likelihood of hypertension in adults living in the Mediterranean area. Future studies are needed to confirm the present findings (i.e., prospective cohort studies) and to better understand the mechanisms underlying such associations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Consumption of Phenolic Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Sicily, Southern Italy
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122159
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa. We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between
[...] Read more.
Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa. We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between dietary phenolic acid consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) in South Italy. We conducted a population-based case-control study from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015). Patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious PCa underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. A total of 118 histopathological-verified PCa cases were collected and a total of 222 controls were selected from a sample of 2044 individuals. Dietary data were collected by using two food frequency questionnaires and data on the phenolic acids content in foods was obtained from the Phenol-Explorer database (www.phenol-explorer.eu). Association between dietary intake of phenolic acids and PCa was calculated through logistic regression analysis. We found lower levels of caffeic acid (2.28 mg/day vs. 2.76 mg/day; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (2.80 mg/day vs. 4.04 mg/day; p < 0.01) in PCa when compared to controls. The multivariate logistic regression showed that both caffeic acid (OR = 0.32; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (OR = 0.30; p < 0.05) were associated with reduced risk of PCa. Higher intake of hydroxybenzoic acids and caffeic acids were associated with lower risk of advanced PCa. High intake of caffeic acid and ferulic acid may be associated with reduced risk of PCa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on the OVA-Induced Asthma Mice Model
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22112019
Received: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although astaxanthin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant effects, inhibitory effects on skin deterioration and anti-inflammatory effects, its effect on asthma has not been studied. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin on airway inflammation in a mouse model
[...] Read more.
Although astaxanthin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant effects, inhibitory effects on skin deterioration and anti-inflammatory effects, its effect on asthma has not been studied. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of astaxanthin on airway inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. We evaluated the number of total cells, Th1/2 mediated inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and airway hyperresponsiveness as well as histological structure. The level of total IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, OVA-specific IgG1, and OVA-specific IgG2a were also examined. The oral administration of 50 mg/mL astaxanthin inhibited the respiratory system resistance, elastance, newtonian resistance, tissue damping, and tissue elastance. Also, astaxanthin suppressed the total cell number, IL-4, and IL-5, and increased the IFN-γ in the BALF. In the sera, total IgE, IgG1, and OVA-specific IgG1 were reduced by astaxanthin exposure and IgG2a and OVA-specific IgG2a were enhanced via oral administration of astaxanthin. Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung, production of mucus, lung fibrosis, and expression of caspase-1 or caspase-3 were suppressed in OVA-induced asthmatic animal treated with astaxanthin. These results suggest that astaxanthin may have therapeutic potential for treating asthma via inhibiting Th2-mediated cytokine and enhancing Th1-mediated cytokine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Olive (Olea europaea L.) Biophenols: A Nutriceutical against Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111858
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant biophenols have been shown to be effective in the modulation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology resulting from free radical-induced oxidative stress and imbalance of the redox chemistry of transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper). On the basis of earlier reported pharmacological
[...] Read more.
Plant biophenols have been shown to be effective in the modulation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology resulting from free radical-induced oxidative stress and imbalance of the redox chemistry of transition metal ions (e.g., iron and copper). On the basis of earlier reported pharmacological activities, olive biophenols would also be expected to have anti-Alzheimer’s activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of individual olive biophenols (viz. caffeic acid, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, quercetin, rutin and luteolin) were evaluated using superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The identification and antioxidant activities in four commercial olive extracts—Olive leaf extractTM (OLE), Olive fruit extractTM (OFE), Hydroxytyrosol ExtremeTM (HTE), and Olivenol plusTM (OLP)—were evaluated using an on-line HPLC-ABTS•+ assay, and HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were the predominant biophenols in all the extracts. Among the single compounds examined, quercetin (EC50: 93.97 μM) and verbascoside (EC50: 0.66 mM) were the most potent SOR and H2O2 scavengers respectively. However, OLE and HTE were the highest SOR (EC50: 1.89 μg/mL) and H2O2 (EC50: 115.8 μg/mL) scavengers among the biophenol extracts. The neuroprotection of the biophenols was evaluated against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and copper (Cu)-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. The highest neuroprotection values (98% and 92%) against H2O2-induced and Cu-induced toxicities were shown by the commercial extract HTETM. These were followed by the individual biophenols, caffeic acid (77% and 64%) and verbascoside (71% and 72%). Our results suggest that olive biophenols potentially serve as agents for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, and other neurodegenerative ailments that are caused by oxidative stress. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Fenton Discoloration of Ultrasonicated Purple Cactus Pear Juice
Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081344
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L*
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of color, betaxanthin, and betacyanin pigments in the presence of Cu(II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (HO•) from ultrasonicated purple cactus pear juice at amplitudes of 40%, 60%, and 80%, in comparison to untreated sample. L* parameter of juice treated at 40% and 80% amplitude for 25 and 15 min, respectively (11.3 and 9.3, respectively), were significantly higher compared to the control; b* and hue parameters of juice treated at 80%, 25 min showed values of 1.7 and 0.1, respectively. Color differences (ΔE) were lower (<3) for juices treated at high amplitude (80%) and short times (3–5 min). Juice treated at 40% 15 min, 60% 25 min, 80% 15 and 25 min presented high values of betacyanins (281.7 mg·L−1, 255.9 mg·L−1, 294.4 mg·L−1, and 276.7 mg·L−1, respectively). Betaxanthin values were higher in the juices treated at 40% 5 min and 80% 15 and 25 min (154.2 mg·L−1, 135.2 mg·L−1, and 128.5 mg·L−1, respectively). Purple cactus pear juice exhibited significant chelating activity of copper ions and great stability when exposed to HO•. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Bioactive Compounds in Brassicaceae Vegetables with a Role in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The beneficial role of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, is well-recognized. In this context, Brassicaceae are considered important vegetables due to several evidences of their health promoting effects that are associated to bioactive
[...] Read more.
The beneficial role of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, is well-recognized. In this context, Brassicaceae are considered important vegetables due to several evidences of their health promoting effects that are associated to bioactive compounds present in the edible parts of the plants. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the factors regulating the levels of the bioactive compounds in Brassicaceae have been discussed. In addition, the impact of industrial and domestic processing on the amount of these compounds have been considered, in order to identify the best conditions that are able to preserve the functional properties of the Brassicaceae products before consumption. Finally, the main strategies used to increase the content of health-promoting metabolites in Brassica plants through biofortification have been analyzed. Full article
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