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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2159;

Dietary Consumption of Phenolic Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Sicily, Southern Italy

Urology Section, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, Section of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Health Direction of Policlinic Hospital, 95100 Catania, Italy
Urology Section, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Dietary polyphenols gained the interest of the scientific community due to their wide content in a variety of plant-derived foods and beverages commonly consumed, such as fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and cocoa. We aimed to investigate whether there was an association between dietary phenolic acid consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) in South Italy. We conducted a population-based case-control study from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy (Registration number: 41/2015). Patients with elevated PSA and/or suspicious PCa underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. A total of 118 histopathological-verified PCa cases were collected and a total of 222 controls were selected from a sample of 2044 individuals. Dietary data were collected by using two food frequency questionnaires and data on the phenolic acids content in foods was obtained from the Phenol-Explorer database ( Association between dietary intake of phenolic acids and PCa was calculated through logistic regression analysis. We found lower levels of caffeic acid (2.28 mg/day vs. 2.76 mg/day; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (2.80 mg/day vs. 4.04 mg/day; p < 0.01) in PCa when compared to controls. The multivariate logistic regression showed that both caffeic acid (OR = 0.32; p < 0.05) and ferulic acid (OR = 0.30; p < 0.05) were associated with reduced risk of PCa. Higher intake of hydroxybenzoic acids and caffeic acids were associated with lower risk of advanced PCa. High intake of caffeic acid and ferulic acid may be associated with reduced risk of PCa. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; Mediterranean diet; phenolic acids; prostate cancer; risk factors diet; Mediterranean diet; phenolic acids; prostate cancer; risk factors

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Russo, G.I.; Campisi, D.; Di Mauro, M.; Regis, F.; Reale, G.; Marranzano, M.; Ragusa, R.; Solinas, T.; Madonia, M.; Cimino, S.; Morgia, G. Dietary Consumption of Phenolic Acids and Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Sicily, Southern Italy. Molecules 2017, 22, 2159.

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